Neuropathology  Case  Studies
Updated 30/9/2017 e-mails : gradanat@fcm.unicamp.br____gradanat@unicamp.br
General and Special Pathology  Neuropathology and Neuroimaging Neuroimaging - Cases Neuroimaging Basics
Alphabetical index (Pathology) Alphabetical index (Neuro) English Homepage Neuro Image Bank
Recent additions This page in Portuguese Site in Portuguese Histopathological  staining  methods
.......
Vascular Inflammatory Demyelinating Tumors (classified) Tumors (alphabetical) Malformations Others
Tumors
classified

diffuse (low grade) astrocytoma
glioblastoma multiforme
gliosarcoma
granular cell astrocytoma
gliomatosis  cerebri
primary extracerebral meningeal glioma
congenital cerebral glioma
pilocytic astrocytoma
pilomyxoid astrocytoma
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
oligodendroglioma
oligoastrocytoma
ependymoma
tanycytic ependymoma
myxopapillary ependymoma


subependymoma
ependymoblastoma
choroid plexus papilloma
choroid plexus carcinoma
astroblastoma
chordoid glioma of third ventricle
dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease)
angiocentric glioma
gangliocytoma
ganglioglioma
desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma / ganglioglioma (DIA / DIG)
central neurocytoma
liponeurocytoma
dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT)
glioneuronal tumor
primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
medulloblastoma
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor
meningioma
hemangiopericytoma
solitary fibrous tumor of meninges
schwannoma
neurofibroma
ganglioneuroma
ganglioneuroblastoma
neuroblastoma
neuroendocrine carcinoma
hemangioblastoma
lymphoma
multiple myeloma / plasmacytoma
histiocytoses
metastases
craniopharyngioma
colloid cyst of III ventricle
epidermoid / dermoid cysts
pituitary adenoma
pituitary carcinoma
granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis
germinal tumors
teratoma
pineal parenchymal tumors
chordoma
paraganglioma
bone tumors
leiomyoma
lipoma
melanocytoma
peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET)
sarcoma
..
Tumors
alphabetical

angiocentric glioma
astroblastoma
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor
bone tumors
central neurocytoma
colloid cyst of III ventricle
congenital cerebral glioma
chordoid glioma of third ventricle
chordoma
choroid plexus carcinoma
choroid plexus papilloma
craniopharyngioma
desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma / ganglioglioma (DIA / DIG)
diffuse (low grade) astrocytoma
dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT)
dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease)
ependymoblastoma
ependymoma
epidermoid / dermoid cysts

 


gangliocytoma
ganglioglioma
ganglioneuroblastoma
ganglioneuroma
germinal tumors
glioblastoma multiforme
gliomatosis  cerebri
glioneuronal tumor
gliosarcoma
granular cell astrocytoma
granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis
hemangioblastoma
hemangiopericytoma
histiocytoses
leiomyoma
lipoma
liponeurocytoma
lymphomamedulloblastoma
melanocytoma
meningioma
metastases
multiple myeloma / plasmacytoma
myxopapillary ependymoma
neuroblastoma
neuroendocrine carcinoma
neurofibroma
oligoastrocytoma
oligodendroglioma
paraganglioma
peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET)
pilocytic astrocytoma
pilomyxoid astrocytoma
pineal parenchymal tumors
pituitary adenoma
pituitary carcinoma
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
primary extracerebral meningeal glioma
primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
sarcoma
schwannoma
solitary fibrous tumor of meninges
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
subependymoma
tanycytic ependymoma
teratoma
tumors of pineal region
..
Latest additions: 30th September, 2017.  Table of recent additions.
Each clickable thumbnail  leads to one case.   Please note: all case pages and texts are in Portuguese.
Blue frame  -   case also has a Neuroimaging page, accessible through bottom of  Neuropathology page. 
Undergraduate Course in Neuropathology : macro specimens, slides, images & texts (in Portuguese only)
Undergraduate Course in Neuroimaging
Neuroimaging case studies
Correlative Neuropathology - Neuroimaging cases
Alphabetical indexes:  general; neuropathology & neuroimaging

Prof. Dr. Luciano de Souza Queiroz (Neuropathologist, Dept. of Pathology),
Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo State, BRAZIL. 
e-mails : gradanat@fcm.unicamp.br____gradanat@unicamp.br

..
VASCULAR  PATHOLOGY   ...Neuroimaging....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
M. 28 yr. Ischemic lesion of  embolic origin M. 51 yr. Cavernoma of optic pathways and reactive gliosis mimicking pilocytic astrocytoma  M. 9 yr. Left temporal cavernoma  F. 14 yr. Left cavernoma of gyrus rectus
Text : vascular malformations of the central nervous system: telangiectasias, cavernomas, AVMs.
F. 36 yr. Cavernoma of  spinobulbar transition F. 28 yr.  Large occipital cavernoma (cavernous hemangioma).  Macro specimen, HE  Same, Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemistry for CD34 M. 38 yr. Left parietal cavernoma (cavernous hemangioma) extending from ventricle to hemispheric surface. Macro, HE
Same, special stains.  Pictured: organized thrombus Same, IH. Pictured: gliotic nervous tissue among dilated vessels F. 28 yr. Cavernoma of right cingulate gyrus. Surgical specimen under stereomicroscope Same, HE, Masson's trichrome
M. 16 yr. Left frontal cavernoma. Surgical specimen under stereomicroscope Same, HE Same, Masson's trichrome
M. 24 yr. Large embolized arteriovenous malformation. Macro, HE Same, special stains, IH M. 47 yr. Frontal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Macro, HE Same, special stains
M. 47 yr.  Temporal arterio-venous malformation. Specimen, HE Same, special stains
F. 57 yr. Capillary telangiectases  associated with cortical dysplasia. Specimen, HE Same, special stains Same, IH - CD34, GFAP, Ki67 Same, IH - neuronal antigens. Pictured: dysplastic neurons decorated by synaptic boutons.  Comment
F. 25 yr. Extradural thoracic capillary hemangioma of ligamentum flavum.  Macro specimen, HE Same, Masson's trichrome Same, IH M. 6 m. Sickle cell disease. Extensive hemorrhagic infarction of cerebellar cortex. 
Sickle cell anemia. Illustrated text (in Portuguese).
M. 58 yr. Basilar artery thrombosis in sickle cell disease. 
Pontine infarction, gross pathology
Same, HE  -  coagulation and  liquefaction necrosis, sickled red blood cells in basis pontis  Same, basilar artery thrombus under stereomicroscope and in HE stain Same, spleen, liver, kidney, lung, HE
M. 48 yr.  Primary necrotizing vasculitis of central nervous system. In situ view at surgery, HE Same, special stains. Text : primary angiitis of brain F. 57 yr.   Primary cerebral vasculitis. HE F. 62 yr. Massive subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by systemic aspergillosis and leptomeningeal vasculitis. Patient also had a successfully treated bacterial brain abscess. See gross appearance and histology of brain, lungs and heart.  More on subarachnoid hemorrhage
F. 62 yr.  Amyloid angiopathy and brain hemorrhage. HE, Masson's trichrome. Leptomeningeal vessels with amyloid deposition Same, Congo red and polarized light. Text F. 72 yr.  Amyloid angiopathy, parenchymatous and ventricular hemorrhage. HE, Congo red  Same, Congo red and polarized light
M. 7 yr. 8 m. Cerebral meningioangiomatosis  - surgical pictures, macro specimen Same, HE, text Same, Masson's trichrome, reticulin Same, LFB-Nissl
Same, IH - neuronal antigens - MAP2, NeuN, SMI32 Same, IH - GFAP, VIM Same, IH - CD34, Ki67
....
INFLAMMATORY  DISEASE.  ...Neuroimaging...
For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging
....
VIRUSES. ....Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging
F. 1 yr 8 m Herpes simplex encephalitis, acute phase.  HE, LFB-Nissl Same, immunohistochemistry for neural antigens  Same, IH for inflammatory cells
M. 62 yr.  Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy   (PML), HE (needle biopsy). Pictured - atypical astrocytes  Text F. 46 yr.  Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).   HE, LFB-Nissl Same, IH - GFAP, S-100 Same, IH - CD68, CD3, CD20
Same, IH - Ki67, p53 Same,  bone marrow biopsy - B cell lymphoma.  Scattered paratrabecular B-lymphocyte  aggregates  M. 50 yr. AIDS, giant cell encephalitis.  Text
...
BACTERIA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 12 yr. Cerebral abscess due to Streptococcus intermedius (botryomycosis) F. 62 yr.  Temporal abscess treated for 2 months with remission (above, residual cavity at autopsy). Patient died of massive subarachnoid hemorrhage due to systemic aspergillosis M. 34 yr. Neurotuberculosis in  HIV+ patient M. 38 yr.  Circumscribed tuberculous meningitis in HIV + patient. HE, Ziehl
M. 32 yr.   Neurotuberculosis 
in unusual presentation with symmetrical necrotizing vasculitis of midline cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. HE, epithelioid and giant cell granuloma
Same, HE, acute necrotizing vasculitis with fibrin deposits and hemorrhagic infarction of cerebral cortex Same,  Masson's trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen stain showing acid-fast bacilli in necrotic brain tissue
M. 50 yr.  AIDS, mycobacteriosis of abdominal lymph nodes M. 30 yr. Lepromatous leprosy of sural nerve. HE, special stains, IH
...
FUNGI ..Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 63 yr. Paracoccidioidomycoma of cerebellopontine angle. HE.  Pictured : Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in giant cells  Same,  plain Grocott, Grocott  + HE Same, Grocott + hematoxylin Same, plain PAS,
PAS + hematoxylin
M. 49 yr. Cerebellar abscess by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. HE  Double membrane yeasts, multiple budding Same, Grocott + hematoxylin Same, Grocott + light green, PAS + hematoxylin M. 71 yr. Cerebellar abscess caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Smear : HE, Grocott, Papanicolaou
Same, cell block : HE, Grocott M. 47 yr. 
Paracoccidioidomycosis. Multiple nodular cerebral lesions with peripheral contrast enhancement mimicking metastases.  Specimen, HE
Same, special stains, Grocott, PAS M. 64 yr. Pseudotumoral paracoccidioidomycosis  of cerebellum.  HE, Grocott, PAS
M. 34 yr.  Cryptococcoma of right parietal lobe. Specimen, scanned slides, HE Same, special stains on paraffin sections Same, special stains on smears of the fixative containing fungi in suspension Same, electron microscopy. Texts : cell wall, capsule
M. 32 yr.   Cerebral  granulomatous cryptococcosis: 
circumscribed meningeal, cerebral lesions. HE, Masson's trichrome, Grocott, mucicarmine, PAS
Cerebral  cryptococcosis: non specific and granulomatous inflammation in meninges and parenchyma. HE, PAS F. 62 yr.  Massive subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by systemic and cerebral aspergillosis
For cryptococcosis - see also  Undergraduate course
Same, aspergillosis of brain (pictured - Aspergillus phlebitis amid subarachnoid hemorrhage) Same, pulmonary aspergillosis. HE, Grocott Same, Aspergillus abscesses in left ventricle HE, Grocott. Hepatitis C liver cirrhosis F. 67 yr.  Rhino-orbital aspergillosis. Aspergillus in necrotic tissue of maxillary sinus and orbit.  - HE, PAS, Grocott. Text
M. 38 yr.  Mucormycosis of nasal cavity, orbit and brain. HE Same, special stains : Grocott + hematoxylin, Grocott  + HE Same, Grocott + light green, PAS + hematoxylin. Text
M. 54 yr.  Cerebral histoplasmosis. Gross brain pathology. Exudative and hemorrhagic lesions in third ventricle Same, HE, third ventricle lesions. Histoplasma capsulatum fungi in macrophage phagosomes Same, HE,  gliotic / fibrotic lesion at anterior commissure  (detected on MRI 6 months previously) Same, HE, necrotic calcified nodule at right anterior horn of lateral ventricle (also visible on MRI 6 months previously)
Case summarytext
Same, HE,  fourth ventricle and leptomeningeal lesions - vasculitis, ependymitis, radiculitis Same, Masson's trichrome.  Fibrosis of basal leptomeninges Same, techniques for fungi - Grocott + HE, Grocott + light green, PAS Same, IH for inflammatory cells : CD68, HAM-56, CD3, CD20
Same, IH for nerve tissue : GFAP, NF (pictured - axons among fungi-filled macrophages) Same, electron microscopy
See also cerebral aspergillosis  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) and chromomycosis (1) (2) (3)
..
PROTOZOA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 50 yr. AIDS - Cerebral toxoplasmosis M. 35 yr. Neurotoxoplasmosis in  HIV+ patient M. 43 yr.  Neurotoxoplasmosis in  HIV+ patient  F. 27 yr.  Pseudotumoral toxoplasmosis in right parietal lobe. Smear, frozen and paraffin sections
....
METAZOA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 49 yr. Spinal racemose cysticercosis  (intradural, extramedullary cysts) M. 35 yr. Giant Cysticercus cellulosae of right cerebral hemisphere. Macro, HE, toluidin blue Same, electron microscopy of cysticercus external membrane Same , inflammatory reaction to parasite, HE, IH.
F. 67 yr. Necrotic Cysticercus cellulosae of cerebral hemisphere - reactional changes in brain tissue. Macro, HE F. 42 yr.   Intraventricular Cysticercus cellulosae. Specimen, HE F. 31 yr.  Cysticercosis cellulosae of brain. Stereomicroscopic images of IV ventricle cysticercus, and histology with degenerative changes F. 47 yr.  Cysticercus racemosus of brain. HE
M. 32 yr. Cerebral
schistosomiasis
F. 37 yr. Spinal cord schistosomiasis F. 19 yr. Spinal cord schistosomiasis.  Massive infestation and cord necrosis - HE Same, special stains
M. 67 yr. Echinococcosis of the central nervous system. Post mortem examination Same, scanned microscopical slides Same, histology, text
....
OTHERS ...Neuroimaging....
F. 33 yr. Lymphocytic hypophysitis  masquerading as macroadenoma. HE, IH, text F. 54 yr. Cerebro-spinal sarcoidosis. HE, special stains. Text : systemic and CNS sarcoidosis Same, IH F. 51 yr.  Sarcoidosis of falx and dura mater of cerebral convexity. HE, Masson's trichrome
F. 72 yr. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (spongiform encephalopathy). brain specimen.  Texts : diffusion-weighted MRI in early diagnosis of CJD; autopsy protocol in CJD Same, HE - basal ganglia, hippocampus Same, HE - frontal cortex, cerebellum, pons Same, gliosis of  caudate nucleus. Immunohistochemistry for GFAP, vimentin.
.....
DEMYELINATING DISEASES....Neuroimaging.......Image bank 
F. 32 yr. Pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis. Scanned microscopical slides, 
HE histology
Same, IH.  F. 13 yr.  Severe multiple sclerosis in early adolescence.  Two-year follow up. HE Same, IH. 
F. 48 yr.  Pseudotumoral demyelinating lesion of   cerebral hemispheric white matter. HE Same, IH.  Same, IH.  F. 49 yr. Pseudotumoral demyelinating lesions in right cerebral hemisphere. HE
Same, IH. F. 48 yr.  Single demyelinating lesion at right parieto-occipital region. HE, LFB-Nissl Same, IH - GFAP, VIM, NF Same, IH for lymphocytes, macrophages, Ki-67
F. 53 yr. Central pontine myelinolysis. Stereotaxic biopsy. Text M. 43 yr. Leukodystrophy with vacuolar changes of white matter reminiscent of Canavan's disease. HE, LFB-Nissl Same, IH.

Leukodystrophies - 
Illustrated linked text  (in Portuguese)

..
TUMORS
DIFFUSE  ASTROCYTOMA    ...Neuroimaging....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology.Neuroimaging.
Low grade diffuse astrocytoma  (OMS grade II) in cerebral hemisphere  (classical case) M. 43 yr.  Low grade diffuse astrocytoma infiltrating from temporal lobe through thalamus (gliomatosis cerebri) M. 33 yr. Low grade diffuse astrocytoma in left cerebral hemisphere M. 36 yr.  Diffuse astrocytoma of brain stem
M. 32 yr.  Anaplastic
gemistocytic
astrocytoma (WHO grade III)
M. 68 yr.  Anaplastic astrocytoma  of corpus callosum infiltrating from  hippocampus to hypothalamus via fornix. HE, IH F. 11 yr. Diffuse astrocytoma of  thalamus with anaplastic foci. HE, IH. Pictured: high proportion of positive nuclei  for p53.  F. 11 yr.  F. 30 yr. Low grade frontal astrocytoma with early anaplasia. Surgical specimen, HE 
Same, IH M. 29 yr.  Anaplastic astrocytoma  of lumbar spinal cord. HE, IH F. 26 days.  Congenital anaplastic astrocytoma of temporal lobe. Specimen, HE Same, IH
F. 4 yr.  Diffuse anaplastic astrocytoma of pons. HE M. 19 yr. Diffuse low grade astrocytoma of thoracic spinal cord.  Spread to cauda equina and frontal metastasis. HE, IH - GFAP, Ki67
GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME
...Neuroimaging........Multifocal glioblastoma - 12 cases
For undergraduates:   Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
F. 37 yr. Glioblastoma multiforme with unusual presentation and rapid  course F. 42 yr. Classical glioblastoma multiforme M. 20 yr. Giant cell glioblastoma Same, site of surgery after 8 months
F. 32 yr. Glioblastoma multiforme of  pontine tegmentum M. 46 yr. Glioblastoma multiforme of cerebellum Same, IH F. 72 yr. Temporoparietal glioblastoma. HE, special stains
Same, IH F. 59 yr.  Classical temporal glioblastoma multiforme; 9 months later, radiation necrosis. F. 27 yr. Giant cell glioblastoma. Smear, frozen sections Same, paraffin, HE
Case summary.  Text : Giant cell glioblastoma
Same, IH : GFAP, VIM, S-100, NF Same, IH : CD34, Ki67, p53 Same, Araldite embedded, toluidin blue stained 1 mm sections Same, electron microscopy
F. 5 months. Glioblastoma multiforme of left cerebral hemisphere (presumably congenital) F. 58 yr.  Giant cell glioblastoma with a component of conventional glioblastoma multiforme. Surgical specimen Same, giant cell part  - HE, Masson's trichrome Same, giant cell part - IH - glial markers, GFAP, VIM, S-100
Same, giant cell part - IH - neuronal markers, synaptophysin, chromogranin, NF, class III beta-tubulin Same, giant cell part - IH - MAP2, CD34, Ki-67, p53 Same, conventional glioblastoma part  - HE Same, conventional glioblastoma part - IH - glial markers, GFAP, VIM
Same, conventional glioblastoma part - IH - neuronal markers, NF, MAP2, tubulin. Pictured - neoplastic infiltration among axons Same, conventional glioblastoma part - IH - CD34, Ki-67, p53 F. 64 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of pineal. HE. Text Same, IH
F. 60 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of midbrain and pineal region.  HE, smear, frozen and paraffin sections Same, IH M. 23 yr. Frontal giant cell glioblastoma. Surgical specimen Same,  HE
Same, Masson's trichrome, reticulin silver stain Same, GFAP, VIM Same, S-100, CD56, NF Same, CD34, Ki67
M. 11 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of pons. HE, GFAP, Ki67 M. 7 yr. 2 m. Glioblastoma multiforme of thalamus. HE, text
GLIOSARCOMA ...Neuroimaging.
M. 56 yr. Left temporal gliosarcoma. HE Same, special stains Same, IH. Text
M. 4 d. Congenital gliosarcoma at foramen of Monro. Smear, frozen sections, HE, special stains Same, IH Same, electron microscopy
M. 49 yr.  Gliosarcoma of left frontal lobe. Specimen, HE Same, special stains Same, IH : GFAP, VIM, 1A4, desmin Same, IH :  CD34, Ki67, p53
F. 48 yr.  Right temporal gliosarcoma. First specimen,  glioblastoma component. HE Same, special stains. Reticulin fibers limited to vessels, absent between tumor cells Same, IH. Glioblastoma cells positive for GFAP, sarcomatous cells negative Same, second specimen, after 4 months - gliosarcoma component only. HE
Same, special stains. Collagen fibers surround individual tumor cells Same, IH Same, EM - extracellular matrix containing collagen fibrils separate  neoplastic cells
M. 63 yr.   Fronto-temporal gliosarcoma. Specimen. Area of glioblastoma : HE, Masson's trichrome, Gomori's silver for reticulin fibers Same, glioblastoma, immunohistochemistry for GFAP, neuronal antigens Same, glioblastoma, IH for CD34, 1A4, Ki67, p53 Same, gliosarcoma, HE, Masson's trichrome, Gomori's silver for reticulin
Same, gliossarcoma, IH for GFAP, S-100, VIM Same, gliossarcoma, IH for CD34, 1A4, Ki67, p53
GRANULAR CELL ASTROCYTOMA OF BRAIN...Neuroimaging....
M. 68 yr.  Granular cell astrocytoma of brain. HE Same, special stains : Masson's trichrome, PAS Same, immunohistochemistry for GFAP Same, IH, VIM, nestin
Case summary, text
Same, IH, CD34  Same, IH, CD68, HAM-56  Same, IH, S-100, NF, CD99 Same, IH, Ki67, p53
Same, electron microscopy, glutaraldehyde-fixed Same, EM, from selected paraffin block
M. 59 yr.  Granular cell astrocytoma of brain. HE Same, IH, GFAP, VIM, S-100 Same, IH, CD34, Ki-67, p53
GLIOMATOSIS  CEREBRI...Neuroimaging....
F. 53 yr. Gliomatosis cerebri secondary to pontine anaplastic astrocytoma  F. 6 yr. Gliomatosis cerebri (anaplastic diffuse astrocytoma of rapid growth) F. 46 yr. Bilateral frontal gliomatosis cerebri involving genu of corpus callosum. HE, IH, text
PRIMARY EXTRACEREBRAL MENINGEAL GLIOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 42 yr. Primary extracerebral meningeal glioma. HE Same, HE, Perls Same, IH, text
CONGENITAL CEREBRAL GLIOMA    ...Neuroimaging....
F. 3 m. 15 d.  to  3 yr.
4 m.    Anaplastic congenital glioma with spontaneous maturation and regression.  3-year follow-up.   1st. biopsy, HE
Same, IH - GFAP, VIM Same, IH - SMI-32, chromogranin, synaptophysin Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67, p53
Case  summary
Same, 2nd. biopsy, HE Same, IH - GFAP, VIM Same, IH - SMI-32, chromogranin, synaptophysin, NF Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67, p53
PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA      .Text......Neuroimaging - cases....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology.Neuroimaging
Pilocytic astrocytoma with abundant Rosenthal fibers. Classical case M. 58 yr. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with classical biphasic pattern. Pictured: pilocytic area M. 3 yr. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with classical biphasic pattern (another case). Pictured: microcystic area F. 15 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of temporal lobe. Pictured: protoplasmatic pattern. 
F. 15 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cingulate gyrus.  Pictured: protoplasmatic pattern M. 16 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of temporal lobe. Pictured: vascular proliferation M. 21 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of frontal lobe with abundant capillary sprouting M. 37 yr. Aggressive cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma invading meninges. Pictured: pseudoglomeruli
Same, IH M. 38 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of spinal cord. Pictured: hyalinized vessels M. 73 yr. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma in the 8th decade. Pictured: hyalinized vessels.  HE, special stains, IH Same, electron microscopy
F. 25 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic chiasm and third ventricle. Pictured: component of diffuse astrocytoma with gemistocytic astrocytes. F. 5 yr. Cellular pilocytic  astrocytoma of basal cerebral hemisphere, with early recurrence.  F. 49 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of basal cerebral hemisphere with nuclear atypia and rapid growth F. 21 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with pronounced nuclear atypia
M. 72 yr.  Anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum in a 72 yr-old man, infiltrating cortex. Pictured: Ki67 labeled nuclei in molecular layer F. 23 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum rich in Rosenthal fibers. Electron microscopy F. 21 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of chiasmatic region and third ventricle. Pictured: smear M. 68 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of midbrain and pons with cerebellar extension. Pictured: tumor invasion of perivascular Virchow-Robin spaces
M. 46 yr. Cystic frontal pilocytic astrocytoma 
with abundant vascular proliferation. Surgical specimen, HE
Same, special stains Same, IH - GFAP Same, VIM, CD34, Ki-67
F. 20 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of midbrain. HE, special stains. Picture: leptomeningeal invasion and desmoplastic reaction Same, IH. Picture: leptomeningeal invasion M. 62 yr. Anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma of right frontal lobe Same, IH
F. 15 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with abundant vascular proliferation. Surgical specimen, HE  Same, special stains Same, IH
M. 24 yr. Occipital pilocytic astrocytoma featuring grossly abnormal vessels, leptomeningeal and parenchymal infiltration and ventricular seeding. Macro, HE Same, special stains

Case summary

Text:  pilocytic astrocytomas

Same, IH. Pictured: Rosenthal fibers Same, second specimen, HE. Pictured: leptomeningeal infiltration
Same, Masson's trichrome Same, IH. Pictured: leptomeningeal infiltration M. 63 yr. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with atypia and high Ki-67 index. HE. Pictured: oligodendroglioma-like tissue Same, IH. Pictured: high Ki-67 index in atypical area
M. 55 yr. Temporal pilocytic astrocytoma. HE. Pictured: protoplasmatic area with eosinophilic granular bodies  (EGBs) F. 66 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellar vermis in the 7th decade. HE. Pictured: hyalinized vessels F. 14 yr.   Pilocytic astrocytoma of quadrigeminal plate with CSF seeding of lumbosacral cul-de-sac. HE, Masson's trichrome Same, IH.
M. 51 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with unusually luxuriant capillary proliferation (prompting differential diagnosis with hemangioblastoma).  HE, GFAP. Pictured : astrocytoma islets amid proliferated capillaries Same, CD34, Ki67, and differential diagnosis with hemangioblastoma : inhibin, NSE, S100 F. 67 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of retina. Same,  HE, GFAP, VIM, S100, Ki67, text
PILOMYXOID  ASTROCYTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
F. 5 yr. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma. HE Same, IH. Text M. 8 yr. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma at septum pellucidum. HE,  solid component  Same, HE, cyst wall
PLEOMORPHIC  XANTHOASTROCYTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
M. 17 yr. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  of left premotor area M. 7 yr. Left parieto-occipital pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma M. 26 yr. Left frontal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma M. 31 yr. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with lipomatous differentiation
F. 27 yr. Complex glioneuronal tumor:
xanthoastrocytoma-
ganglioglioma-
ependymoma
Same,  xanthoastrocytoma component Same,  ganglioglioma component  Same, ependymoma component
F. 27 yr. Left parietal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. HE, IH.  M. 44 yr. Anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma or  lipidized glioblastoma multiforme. HE, special stains Same, IH, comment M. 15 yr.  Non-Taylor cortical dysplasia - intracortical pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (chance finding).  HE, IH
F. 14 yr. Solid-cystic  temporal
xanthoastrocytoma.  Glycogen deposits in tumor cells 
Same,  PAS Same,  IH Same,  EM
M. 15 yr.  Occipital paraventricular pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. HE Same, special stains Same, immunohistochemistry : GFAP, VIM, NSE, NF Same, IH :  CD34, Ki67, p53
Same, recurrence after  five years. Specimen, HE, special stains. Text: connective tissue fibers Same, IH M. 36 yr.   Fronto-parietal mesial pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. HE Same, IH -  GFAP, VIM, S100, NF
Same, IH - CD34, CD99, 1A4, Ki67, p53 M. 11 yr. Frontal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. HE Same, IH - GFAP, VIM Same, IH - S100, NF, chromogranin, 1A4
Same, IH - CD34, CD99, Ki67, p53
SUBEPENDYMAL  GIANT  CELL  ASTROCYTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology
Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis  Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, HE, IH
M. 28 yr. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) unassociated with tuberous sclerosis. HE - smear, paraffin. Comment. Texts: SEGA, Tuberous sclerosis Same, IH glial markers Same, IH neuronal markers Same, IH nestin, EMA, CD34, Ki-67
M. 4 yr. 4 m.  Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis. HE, Masson's trichrome, reticulin silver stain Same, IH for GFAP, VIM  Same, S-100, HAM 56, CD68 Same, NF, chromogranin, MAP2, CD56
Same, EMA, CD34, Ki67 M. 1 yr. 9 m. Tuberous sclerosis. Giant partly calcified fronto-parietal tuber. Surgical specimen Same, HE, Masson's trichrome, reticulin Same, LFB-Nissl
Same, GFAP, VIM Same,  MAP2, chromogranin Same, SNF, NF, SMI-32. Text Same, CD34, Ki67
OLIGODENDROGLIOMA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:   Neuropathology
Oligodendroglioma with classical histological features M. 32 yr. Oligodendroglioma - HE, IH M. 48 yr. Oligodendroglioma with minigemistocytes Same, IH
M. 62 yr. Oligodendroglioma with minigemistocytes (another case)
OLIGOASTROCYTOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 22 yr. Frontal oligoastrocytoma. HE, IH M. 44 yr. Left temporal oligoastrocytoma  with gliomatosis cerebri. HE, IH M. 38 yr. Well circumscribed frontal oligoastrocytoma. Surgical specimen, HE  Same, IH
M. 36 yr. Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma -  radiation brain necrosis after 5 years. 
Case summary
EPENDYMOMA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:   Neuropathology
Classical ependymoma M. 17 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma  of third ventricle F. 49 yr. Spinal cellular ependymoma  M. 53 yr. Cellular pigmented ependymoma of fourth ventricle
M. 28 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of fourth ventricle Same, recurrence after 4 years M. 31 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of pineal region Same, electron microscopy
M. 34 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of cerebral hemisphere Same, IH M. 15 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of cerebral hemisphere with lipomatous
differentiation
Same, IH
M. 49 yr. Recurrent ependymoma of  foramen of Luschka featuring hyaline centered rosettes containing elastic fibers.  HE Same, special stains. Pictured : grainy elastic fibers in Verhoeff's stain Same, IH Same, EM, general features of ependymoma
Same, EM, clumps of elastic fibers at core of 'hyaline rosettes' F. 19 yr.  Cellular ependymoma  of posterior horn of lateral ventricle.  Surgical specimen, HE Same, IH Same, EM
M. 4 yr.  Tanycytic ependymoma of third ventricle and foramina of Monro. HE. Text Same, IH M. 6 yr. Right sided parieto-occipital tanycytic ependymoma. Macro specimen, HE, special stains Same, IH
F. 44 yr.  Tanycytic ependymoma of  lumbar spinal cord. HE Spinal ependymoma featuring numerous ependymal canals and rosettes.  HE F. 77 yr.  Clear cell ependymoma of cervical spinal cord. HE. Text
M. 25 yr.   Neurofibromatosis type 2. Cystic ependymoma in medulla oblongata. Surgical field and specimen. CT, MRI of this and other tumors Same,  HE Same,  IH - GFAP, VIM, EMA, NF, CD34, Ki-67
MYXOPAPILLARY  EPENDYMOMA ...Neuroimaging....
M. 14 yr. Myxopapillary ependymoma  - HE,  special stains Same, IH Myxopapillary ependymoma  (another case) - HE,  special stains, IH F. 26 yr. Myxopapillary ependymoma. HE
F. 1yr 3m. Extensive thoracic myxopapillary ependymoma.  HE, text Same, Masson's trichrome, Alcian blue Same, IH - GFAP, VIM, S100, CD34, Ki67
SUBEPENDYMOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 56 yr. Subependymoma of lateral ventricle. Specimen, HE, special stains Same, IH, text Same, EM
F. 49 yr. Subependymoma of lateral ventricle. Macro, HE  Same, IH Same, EM
EPENDYMOBLASTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
F. 2 yr. 5 m. Frontal ependymoblastoma. HE Same, IH Same, IH, text Same, EM
CHOROID PLEXUS PAPILLOMA ...Neuroimaging....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology
M. 11 yr. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle  F. 36 yr. Choroid plexus papilloma of fourth ventricle. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH Comparison between papilloma and carcinoma of choroid plexus. Text on choroid plexus tumors
M.  6 m. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle. 
Macro specimen, stereomicroscopic images, HE, special stains
Same, IH M. 10 m. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle. Macro, text - choroid plexus tumors Same, HE
Same, HE, cerebral infiltration Same,  IH -  GFAP, VIM, S-100, AE1AE3 Same, IH - synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67, p53
CHOROID PLEXUS CARCINOMA  ...Neuroimaging....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology.
F. 1 yr 7 m. Choroid plexus carcinoma of lateral ventricle with  seeding through CSF pathways. Macro, HE Same, IH Same, EM Same case, area of normal choroid plexus.  HE, special stains, IH 
M. 3 month old. Choroid plexus carcinoma. HE Same, IH F. 10 yr.  Choroid plexus carcinoma. HE, special stains Same, IH
Comparison between papilloma and carcinoma of choroid plexus. Text on choroid plexus tumors
ASTROBLASTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
M. 43 yr.  Right  parietal astroblastoma. HE Same, IH Same, IH, text
CHORDOID GLIOMA OF THIRD VENTRICLE...Neuroimaging....
F. 43 yr.  Chordoid glioma of third ventricle. HE Same, IH, text
ANGIOCENTRIC GLIOMA  ...Neuroimaging...
F. 6 yr 7 m.   Angiocentric glioma  in left superior frontal gyrus. Specimen, HE, text Same, special stains Same, IH for glial antigens Same, IH for neuronal antigens
Same, IH for EMA, CD34, Ki67, p53
LHERMITTE-DUCLOS DISEASE  (DYSPLASTIC GANGLIOCYTOMA  OF CEREBELLLUM) ...Neuroimaging, image bank text...
F. 32 yr.   Dysplastic gangliocytoma of  cerebellum  (Lhermitte-Duclos disease). Area with full blown changes, specimen, HE Same, LFB-Nissl Same, IH for MAP2, NeuN, synaptophysin Same, IH for NF, chromogranin
Same, IH for GFAP, S100 Same, IH for CD34, CD68, Ki67 Same, partial changes, specimen, HE Same,  LFB-Nissl
Same, IH for MAP2, NeuN Same, IH for GFAP, CD34, CD68, Ki67 F. 45 yr.   Dysplastic gangliocytoma of  cerebellum  (Lhermitte-Duclos disease). HE, LFB-Nissl, lesions at different phases
M. 22 yr.   Dysplastic gangliocytoma of  cerebellum  (Lhermitte-Duclos disease).  HE, LFB-Nissl Same, IH for MAP2, NeuN, synaptophysin Same, IH for NF, chromogranin Same, IH for GFAP, CD34, Ki67
M. 22 yr.  Same patient, area of normal cerebellar cortex. HE, LFB-Nissl Same, IH for MAP2, NeuN, NF, synaptophysin Same, IH for GFAP, S100, CD34
GANGLIOCYTOMA...Neuroimaging....
F. 20 yr. Gangliocytoma / ganglioglioma of a cerebral gyrus - HE Same, LFB/Nissl Same, immunohistochemistry for astrocytes Same, immunohistochemistry for neurons
Same, comparative
F. 79 yr. Gangliocytoma of pituitary.   HE, text Same, Masson's trichrome, reticulin Same, IH - MAP2, SMI-32, NF Same, IH - GFAP, AE1AE3, GH, CD34, Ki67
GANGLIOGLIOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 17 yr. Mesial temporal ganglioglioma  F. 15 yr.  Temporal ganglioglioma  F. 2 yr 5 m. Frontal ganglioglioma F. 32 yr. Temporal ganglioglioma  associated with cortical dysplasia 
M. 13 yr. Ganglioglioma of isthmus of cingulate gyrus Same, recurring as glioblastoma multiforme after 5 years M. 21 yr. Desmoplastic ganglioglioma in an  adult, with calcospherites F. 29 yr. Classical ganglioglioma of middle temporal gyrus
F. 4 yr. Ganglioglioma associated with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor  (DNT). HE. Same, ganglioglioma, IH Same, DNT, IH for  neuronal antigens  Same, DNT, IH for  glial antigens and others
Same, DNT, area with feathery cells F. 19 yr. Ganglioglioma of left inferior temporal gyrus   + cortical dysplasia. Ganglioglioma, HE Same, ganglioglioma, IH Same, dysplastic cortex, HE
Same, dysplastic cortex, IH - VIM, CD34 Same, dysplastic cortex, IH - GFAP, NSE, NF, synaptophysin Same, normal cortex, HE F. 26 yr. Ganglioglioma of spinal cord. HE, special stains
Same, IH M. 37 yr. Ganglioglioma of left frontal lobe. HE, special stains Same, IH for neurons Same, IH for glia
M. 23 yr. Ganglioglioma with  sarcomatous component.
HE, special stains
Same, IH F. 29 yr.  Solid-cystic right parietal ganglioglioma with  features of xanthoastrocytoma. Macro, smears Same, HE
Same, special stains Same, IH - GFAP Same, IH - neuronal markers Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67
F. 32 yr. Solid-cystic ganglioglioma 
with pilocytic glial component in cerebellum. Specimen
Same, HE Same, special stains Same, IH
Same, electron microscopy. Picture: hyaline granular body M. 22 yr.  Ganglioglioma of cerebellum. Specimen, HE, special stains Same, IH Same, EM (pictured - astrocytic processes rich in intermediate filaments)
F. 52 yr.  Anaplastic parietal ganglioglioma. Macro specimen, smear, scanned slides Same, HE Same, IH : glial markers (GFAP, VIM, S-100); nestin Same, neuronal markers, CD34, Ki67
M. 55 yr. Frontal ganglioglioma with pilocytic glial component. HE : smear, paraffin Same, IH : GFAP, VIM Same, IH : MAP2, chromogranin, NeuN, neurofilament Same, IH : nestin, CD34, Ki67
F. 45 yr. Left parietal ganglioglioma. HE. Pictured - multinucleated tumor cell Same, IH - glial markers, GFAP, VIM Same, IH - neuronal markers, synaptophysin, NF, chromogranin, NeuN Same, IH  - MAP2, tubulin, CD34, Ki-67
M. 12 yr. Small solid ganglioglioma of right insula. HE. Pictured - abnormal neuron Same, IH - glial markers, GFAP, VIM Same, IH - neuronal markers, synaptophysin, NF, chromogranin, NeuN Same, IH -  MAP2, tubulin, CD34, Ki-67
F. 51 yr. Solid-cystic ganglioglioma of right temporal and occipital regions. HE. Pictured - multinucleated tumor cell Same, IH - glial markers, GFAP, VIM Same, IH - neuronal markers, synaptophysin, chromogranin, NF, NeuN Same, IH  - MAP2, tubulin, CD34, Ki-67
M. 25 yr.  Ganglioglioma exceptionally rich in eosinophilic granular bodies (EGBs). HE Same,  special stains Same, IH - synaptophysin, NF. Pictured - binucleated neuron Same, IH - GFAP, VIM
Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67. Pictured -'feathery cell' F. 64 yr.  Bifrontal desmoplastic ganglioglioma with areas of central neurocytoma. Ganglioglioma component - gross specimen, smear, paraffin HE Same, special stains Same, immunohistochemistry for astrocytes - GFAP, VIM
Case summary Neurocytoma component
Same, IH for neurons - MAP2, NF Same, IH for neurons - chromogranin, synaptophysin, class III beta tubulin,  NeuN Same, IH - CD34, Ki67, p53 Same, electron microscopy - neurons
Same, EM - dendrites, axons, neuropil, synapses Same, EM - astrocytes, granular bodies, capillary M. 20 yr. Ganglioglioma of head of caudate nucleus. HE, special stains
Same, IH for GFAP, VIM Same, MAP2, NeuN Same, SMI-32, chromogranin, synaptophysin Same, CD34, Ki67
F. 8 yr.  Ganglioglioma 
with pilocytic astrocytoma component in spinal cord. HE
Same, IH for glial antigens  - GFAP, vimentin Same, IH for neuronal antigens -  chromogranin, MAP2, SMI-32 Same, IH for CD34, Ki67
M. 23 yr. Cystic ganglioglioma with minute solid component of pilocytic astrocytoma in cingulate gyrus. HE Same,  IH - GFAP, chromogranin, CD34, Ki67 M. 2 yr. 4 m.  Anaplastic ganglioglioma of brain stem. HE, text
Same, Masson's trichrome, reticulin  Same, immunohistochemistry  for GFAP, VIM Same, IH - neuronal antigens, CD34, Ki67 Same, neoplastic seeding of peritoneum via CSF catheter after 4 months. HE, IH - GFAP, CD20, CD3, CD68, Ki67. Atypical cells in ascitic fluid
F. 1yr 1m. Anaplastic ganglioglioma  in III ventricle. Original biopsy and after 6 months of chemotherapy. 1st sample, HE Same, 1st sample, IH - GFAP, VIM, SNF, NF, SMI32, CD34, Ki67 Same, 2nd sample, HE Same, 2nd sample, IH - GFAP, SNF, NF, SMI32, CD34, Ki67
DESMOPLASTIC  INFANTILE  ASTROCYTOMA / GANGLIOGLIOMA 
(DIA / DIG)...Neuroimaging.
M. 1 yr. Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma. HE, text Same, special stains Same, IH - GFAP, VIM, synaptophysin Same, IH - CD34, 1A4, Ki-67, p53
M. 11 yr.  Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma. Text. M. 2 m. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma F. 3 m. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma
CENTRAL NEUROCYTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
M. 33 yr. Central neurocytoma  Same, electron microscopy. Pictured - Homer Wright pseudorosette F. 26 yr. Central neurocytoma  Same, electron microscopy. Pictured - axon terminal replete with synaptic vesicles
M. 45 yr. Heavily calcified central neurocytoma, HE, IH F. Central neurocytoma  F. 18 yr. Central neurocytoma. HE, IH. Pictured: astrocytic differentiation M. 24 yr.  Atypical central neurocytoma. HE, special stains. Pictured : atypical mitosis. Comment.
Same, IH neuronal markers. Pictured : synaptophysin-positive perivascular pseudorosettes  Same, IH glial markers, CD34, Ki-67 (> 50%) M. 35 yr. Central neurocytoma. HE. Text:  Central neurocytoma Same, IH neuronal markers, CD34
Same, IH glial markers, Ki-67 M. 26 yr.  Central neurocytoma. HE, IH F. 64 yr.  Central neurocytoma as component of a desmoplastic bifrontal
ganglioglioma
Same, IH for astrocytes - GFAP, VIM
Case summary Ganglioglioma component
Same, IH for neurons -  NF, chromogranin, synaptophysin Same, IH for neurons - MAP2, NeuN Same, IH, nestin, CD34, Ki67, p53 F. 52 yr.  Central neurocytoma incarcerating the choroid plexus. HE, Masson's trichrome, IH for synaptophysin, Ki67
M. 15 yr.  Atypical central neurocytoma of third ventricle. HE, IH for glial antigens Same, IH for neuronal antigens, CD34, Ki67
CEREBELLAR  LIPONEUROCYTOMA 
F. 72 yr. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma , HE, texts : liponeurocytoma, rhythmic nuclear palisading
DYSEMBRYOPLASTIC  NEUROEPITHELIAL TUMOR (DNT)...Neuroimaging....
M. 23 yr. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor   (DNT). Text M. 3 yr. DNT associated with cortical dysplasia  M. 43 yr. DNT of gyrus rectus. HE Same, IH
F. 20 yr.  DNT of right superior frontal gyrus. HE. Text Same, Masson's trichrome Same, luxol fast blue - cresyl violet Same, IH for neurons - MAP2
Same, IH for neurons - NF, tubulin Same, IH for astrocytes - GFAP, VIM, S-100 Same, IH  - CD34, Ki67 M. 13 yr. DNT of left pre-central gyrus. HE - pictured :  perineuronal satellitosis
M. 18 yr. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). HE  Same, LFB-Nissl Same, IH - GFAP Same, IH - MAP2
Same, IH - NeuN Same,  IH - SMI32, NF Same,  IH - synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD34, Ki67
GLIONEURONAL TUMOR ...Neuroimaging....
F. 30 yr. Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and focal transformation to glioblastoma multiforme - HE Same, immunohistochemistry for neuronal antigens Same, immunohistochemistry for glial antigens Same, electron microscopy
Same, area of glioblastoma multiforme, HE, IH.
PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR (PNET)...Neuroimaging....
M. 21 yr. Left temporal PNET M. 4 d.  Congenital PNET (primitive neuroectodermal tumor) of cerebral hemisphere with ependymal and neuroblastic differentiation. HE Same, IH F. 37 yr. Anaplastic primitive neuroectodermal tumor  (PNET) of left frontal lobe.  Specimen, smear, frozen sections
Same, paraffin sections, HE Same, IH (GFAP) Same, IH, other markers (pictured - positivity for chromogranin) Same, EM (pictured -  neuropil of fine tumor cell processes)
M. 29 yr. Left parietal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). HE, reticulin  Same, IH : GFAP, VIM, S-100, NF, synaptophysin, NSE, chromogranin Same, IH : CD56, CD99, EMA, CD34, Ki67, p53
F. 9 yr. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Specimen, HE  Same, special stains. Pictured : elastic fibers amid tumor cells Same, immunohistochemistry : GFAP, VIM Same, IH :  nestin, S-100, CD56
Same, IH : synaptophysin, chromogranin, NF, EMA Same, IH : AE1AE3,  1A4,  CD34,  Ki-67,  p53 Same, electron microscopy. Pictured : elastic fibers
F. 43 yr.  Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). First sample, HE Same, second sample, HE Same, special stains Same, immunohistochemistry for GFAP, VIM, nestin
Same, IH, tubulin (text), CD56, S-100, NF Same, IH, CD68, HAM-56,  CD3, CD20 Same, IH, CD34, 1A4, Ki67, p53 Same, electron microscopy
F. 36 yr.  Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of brainstem at IV ventricle floor.  HE Same, IH
F. 2 yr.  2 m. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and multilayered rosettes. Specimen, HE, text Same, IH for glial antigens  - GFAP, vimentin Same, IH for neuronal antigens - neurofilament, synaptophysin, MAP2, NeuN Same, IH for EMA, Ki67
Same, electron microscopy F. 2 yr.  9 m. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and multilayered rosettes. Recurrence after 6 months.  HE  Same, Masson's trichrome, reticulin Same, IH - neuronal antigens  - chromogranin, SMI-32, NF, synaptophysin, NeuN
Same, IH  - glial antigens  - GFAP, VIM Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67, p53
MEDULLOBLASTOMA ...Neuroimaging....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology...Neuroimaging
Desmoplastic medulloblastoma, classical case M. 21 yr. Desmoplastic medulloblastoma  M. 42 yr. Desmoplastic medulloblastoma  F. 38 yr. Desmoplastic medulloblastoma 
M. 35 yr. Medulloblastoma of vermis, classical type, with spontaneous peritumoral hemorrhage. HE, IH.  F. 32 yr. Large cell medulloblastoma with multiple foci in cerebellum and spinal cord. Postmortem: macro, HE, Retic. Same, IH F. 29 yr. Desmoplastic
medulloblastoma. HE, special stains
Same, IH F. 24 yr.  Desmoplastic medulloblastoma. HE, reticulin Same, IH, text: medulloblastomas
ATYPICAL  TERATOID/RHABDOID .TUMOR.....Neuroimaging....
M. 1 yr. 1 m. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of right cerebral hemisphere. HE, text Same, Masson's trichrome, reticulin Same, immunohistochemistry  for epithelial antigens - EMA, AE1AE3 Same, IH - glial antigens  - GFAP, vimentin, S100
Same, IH - neuronal antigens - synaptophysin, MAP2, SMI-32 Same, IH - 1A4, CD34 Same, IH - INI1, Ki67, p53 Same, IH - CD68, HAM56, CD3, CD20
..
MENINGIOMA ...Neuroimaging....By topography.....More cases
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
Meningothelial  meningioma infiltrating bone and soft tissues, causing hyperostosis. Classical case M.  26 yr. Meningothelial  meningioma with rapid growth in young adult  F. 67 yr.  Intraventricular atypical meningioma  F. 66 yr.  Classical meningothelial  meningioma
M.  74 yr. Meningothelial meningioma infiltrating brain M.  69 yr. Fibroblastic meningioma with deposits of hematoidin crystals in necrotic areas M.  44 yr. Transitional meningioma of posterior fossa  - positivity for progesterone receptor Same, electron microscopy
F. 70 yr.  Large parietal meningothelial/ transitional meningioma infiltrating brain  Same, IH F. 62 yr.  Fibroblastic meningioma of spinal canal. HE, special stains Same, IH
F. 41 yr.  Transitional meningioma  of olfactory groove.  HE, special stains, IH F. 50 yr.  Frontobasal meningothelial meningioma.  HE, special stains, IH F. 47 yr.  Frontoparietal fibroblastic meningioma. Macro, HE, special stains, IH M.  60 yr. Chordoid meningioma of right frontotemporal region. Macro, HE
Same, special stains, IH, text M.  64 yr. Lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma en plaque of orbital roof growing into basal cisterns. 10-year follow-up. HE, IH, text F. 73 yr.  Secretory meningioma  of planum sphenoidale. HE, special stains Same, IH, text
Same, EM.   Pictured: pseudopsammomatous bodies F. 48 yr.  Microcystic meningioma  of falx. Macro, HE Same, special stains Same, IH, text
F. 33 yr.  Whorl-rich transitional meningioma.  Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH F. 75 yr.  Angiomatous meningioma. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH
F. 52 yr.  Atypical meningioma. HE, special stains Same, IH. Text M.  36 yr. Meningioma originating in middle ear, HE, IH Same, intracranial extension after 4 years, HE, IH
F.  36 yr. Secretory meningioma of sphenoid wing with hyperostosis.  Intraosseous, intracranial and intraorbitary components, HE Same, PAS Same, EM F. 43 yr.  Meningioma of optic nerve sheath. Surgical specimen, HE
Same, special stains Same, IH F. 13 yr. Clear cell meningioma of posterior fossa. HE, special stains, text Same, IH
Same, electron microscopy M.  51 yr. Lipidized meningioma of sphenoid wing (with adipose metaplasia + secretory component). Macro, HE Same, special stains Same, IH
Case summary  »»

F. 29 yr.  Complex meningioma combining rhabdoid, papillary  and clear cell patterns.

Same, electron microscopy F. 42 yr. Recurrent chordoid meningioma invading frontal sinus. HE, IH Gross specimen, smear, frozen sections
Rhabdoid areas,
HE, special stains
Rhabdoid areas, IH, text Rhabdoid areas, EM Papillary areas, 
HE, special stains
Papillary areas, IH, text Clear cell areas, 
HE, special stains
Clear cell areas, IH Clear cell areas, EM
M. 49 yr.  Xanthomatous and  angiomatous meningioma. Gross specimen, HE Same, special stains Same, IH Same, EM
F. 66 yr. Meningioma with microcystic, xanthomatous, angiomatous and meningothelial parts. Gross specimen, HE Same, special stains Same, IH Same, EM
F. 75 yr. Fibroblastic 
meningioma of left lateral ventricle. Macro, HE
M. 70 yr.  Atypical meningioma with intra and extracranial growth replacing left side of frontal bone.   HE - hipercellularity, small cells, prominent nucleoli  Same, IH.
Pictured: EMA positivity in tumor cell membranes.
F. 63 yr. Giant meningioma of olfactory groove.   HE : nuclear palisading mimicking schwannoma
F. 57 yr. Meningioma en plaque of middle fossa infiltrating cavernous sinus and middle ear. 
HE : whorls in middle ear biopsy
M. 51 yr. Secretory meningioma  at cerebello-pontine angle masquerading as  schwannoma on MRI. HE, special stains Same, IH.
M. 43 yr. Giant bilateral
fronto-parietal 
meningioma  with hyperostosis and brain compression (MRI  Feb 2008). Midline section through infiltrated bone, HE. 
Same, intracranial tumor removed 4 years later.  Specimen weighed 290 g.  HE  M. 69 yr. Frontal meningioma  producing  hyperostosis and bone destruction. HE - intraosseous component. Extensive ischemic necrosis of tumor and bone trabeculae Same, HE - intracranial component. Cerebral infiltration
F. 68 yr.  Exophytic meningioma of lesser sphenoid wing with hyperostotic nodule at implantation. specimen, HE Same, Masson's trichrome Same, hyperostotic nodule under polarized light F. 56 yr.  Psammomatous meningioma of olfactory groove. HE
F. 48 yr.  Chordoid meningioma of olfactory groove invading nasal cavity. HE Same,  special stains Same, IH Same, EM
 
F. 44 yr. Intraspinal psammomatous meningioma. HE, special stains Same, IH F. 30 yr. Microcystic meningioma of greater sphenoid wing, causing hyperostosis. HE M. 38 yr. Small temporal chordoid meningioma.  HE, IH. Pictured  - incipient whorl formation
F. 20 yr.    Anaplastic and clear cell  meningioma of posterior fossa with supratentorial extension.  Specimen, HE, anaplastic part Same, HE, clear cell part Same, Masson's trichrome Same, reticulin, PAS in clear cell part, before and after amylase digestion
Same, immunohistochemistry for EMA, VIM Same, IH, S-100, CD57, 1A4, HHF35. Pictured - axons in cranial nerve root infiltrated by tumor Same, IH, CD34, Ki-67, p53
F. 55 yr. Fibroblastic S-100 positive meningiomas of posterior fossa raising schwannoma as differential diagnosis. HE,  IH - EMA, S-100 M. 74 yr. Fibroblastic S-100 positive meningioma of posterior fossa at internal auditory canal mimicking schwannoma. HE,  IH - EMA, S-100
HEMANGIOPERICYTOMA...Neuroimaging....Text
Solitary fibrous tumor  and hemangiopericytoma
Illustrated linked text
M. 33 yr. Hemangiopericytoma of falx cerebri. Specimen, HE, special stains Same, IH, text Same, EM
M. 30 yr. Hemangiopericytoma of tentorium cerebelli. HE Same, special stains Same, IH Same, EM. Pictured - reticulin fibers
F. 67 yr. Hemangiopericytoma of sellar region mimicking pituitary adenoma. HE, special stains Same, IH
SOLITARY FIBROUS TUMOR OF THE  MENINGES...Neuroimaging....
F. 20 yr. Solitary fibrous tumor of meninges in the falx.  Text.   HE, special stains Same, IH Same, comparison to fibroblastic meningioma. Text M. 53 yr. Solitary fibrous tumor of meninges. HE, special stains, IH
M. 50 yr. Solitary fibrous tumor of meninges.  HE, special stains Same, IH M. 73 yr. Solitary fibrous tumor of meninges. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH
F. 37 yr.  Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor developing multiple bone metastases 3 years after craniotomy. Primary tumor, HE Same, special stains Same, IH Same, vertebral metastasis at T11 with cord compression 3 years later. HE, special stains
Solitary fibrous tumor  and hemangiopericytoma
Illustrated linked text
Same, IH M. 55 yr.   Occipital epidural solitary fibrous tumor penetrating through bone. HE, special stains Same, IH
M. 52 yr.   Occipital / cervical intra- e extracranial solitary fibrous tumor. 10 year follow up and late metastases to thoracic vertebrae.  2014 sample, HE, special stains Same, 2014 sample, IH Same, 2009 sample, HE
SCHWANNOMA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:   Neuropathology. Neuroimaging.
M. 37 yr. Acoustic schwannoma  HE, special stains Same, IH Same, ME F. 27 yr. Cervical root schwannoma.  HE, IH
F. 63 yr. Retroperitonial schwannoma, HE, IH M. 30 yr. Schwannoma of cauda equina at conus medullaris. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH
M. 27 yr. Schwannoma of trigeminal nerve root or of Gasserian ganglion. surgical specimen, HE Same, special stains Same, IH
M. 28 yr. Multiple schwannomas of cauda equina. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH (picture, Antoni B pattern) Same, EM  (arrows, basal lamina enveloping Schwann cell)
NEUROFIBROMA....Neuroimaging.BImage bank....Texts (1) (2)
M.  31 yr. Cutaneous plexiform neurofibroma. Macro, HE Same, special stains Same, IH
M. 12 yr. Plexiform neurofibroma  of tongue. HE, Masson's trichrome Same, IH - NF, CD57, S100, EMA
GANGLIONEUROMA,  GANGLIONEUROBLASTOMA....Neuroimaging
For undergraduates: Endocrine Pathology .  Neuro image bank: Sympathetic ganglion
F. 26 yr. Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroblastoma, HE Same, IH for  neuronal antigens  Same, IH for glial antigens and others Same, recurrence after 6 years.  HE, IH. 
F. 20 yr. Epidural thoracic ganglioneuroblastoma. HE. Text. Same, IH F. 68 yr. Ganglioneuroma of mediastinum, HE, IH
NEUROBLASTOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 40 yr. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma)
Surgical specimen, HE.
Same, IH for neural markers Same, IH for non-neural markers Same, electron microscopy
M. 11 m.  Retroperitonial neuroblastoma  metastatic  to skull. Surgical specimen, HE. Same, IH M. 46 yr. 
Esthesioneuroblastoma causing frontal lobe hemorrhage. HE, IH. 
Pictured: Homer Wright rosette
NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA ...Neuroimaging....
M. 52 yr.  Sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. Specimen, HE.  Text Same, IH : epithelial markers,  vimentin Same, IH : neural markers
HEMANGIOBLASTOMA...Neuroimaging....
F. 55 yr. Classical spinal hemangioblastoma  F. 50 yr. Spinal hemangioblastoma. Another case F. 23 yr. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma, HE, IH F. 50 yr. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Macro specimen
M. 39 yr. Spinal hemangioblastoma, macro specimen M. 52 yr.  Hemangioblastoma of medulla oblongata. Macro specimen, HE, special stains Same, IH. Texts : NSE, inhibin Same, electron microscopy. Text
LYMPHOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 65 yr. Non-Hodgkin large B-cell lymphoma of cerebral hemisphere F. 32 yr. Non-Hodgkin large B-cell lymphoma of cerebral hemisphere in  AIDS F. 62 yr. Primary  B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of occipital bone. HE, IH
Text
F. 19 yr. Recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma in thoracic vertebrae and soft tissues, causing root compression. HE, IH
F. 56 yr. B-cell lymphoma of cerebellum and pituitary. HE, special stains, IH M. 24 yr. Systemic T/NK cell lymphoma masquerading as multiple sclerosis. Postmortem examination of brain and spinal cord Same, brain, HE - lymphoma Same, spinal cord, HE - lymphoma
Same, spinal cord, HE - other findings. Pictured: cerebellar tonsil herniation down to midthoracic cord Same, spinal cord, IH - lymphoma Same, other organs, HE.  Pictured: lymphomatous infiltration of spleen arterioles Same, endocardium, IH. Pictured: nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNAs (EBER)
F. 27 yr. Diffusely infiltrating, non contrast enhancing B-cell lymphoma. HE Same, IH F. 60 yr. Primary dural lymphoma with extracranial extension. 12-year follow-up. HE Same, IH. Text :  inflammatory pseudotumor
F. 56 yr. Marginal zone non Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma of skull base at left cavernous sinus. HE, IH,  Texts F. 42 yr. Centroencephalic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. HE, IH. Text. F. 52 yr.  B cell lymphoma of dura mater, occipital bone and soft tissues. HE, IH 
MULTIPLE MYELOMA / PLASMACYTOMA...Neuroimaging....
M. 59 yr. Multiple myeloma of spine F. 45 yr.  Plasmacytoma of skull base, HE - smear, frozen and paraffin sections. Text. Same, IH Same, electron microscopy
M. 61 yr. Skull base plasmacytoma (occipital and temporal bones). HE, IH
HISTIOCYTOSES... Neuroimaging....
F. 50 yr. Non Langerhans histiocytosis  of skull base and sellar region. HE, IH M. 34 yr. Non Langerhans histiocytosis  of meninges and brain. HE, IH F. 3 yr. Langerhans histiocytosis (eosinophil granuloma) of skull and sternum. HE, IH. Text M. 63 yr. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of orbit.  HE. Texto.
Same, IH Same, EM M. 37 yr. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of spinal canal C7-T1, HE Same, IH
M. 6 yr.  Langerhans cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X or eosinophil granuloma) of skull (occipital bone). HE, IH - CD1A, S100, CD68, CD20, CD3, Ki67 F. 2yr 9m. Langerhans cell histiocytosis  in vertebral body of C7. HE, IH - CD1A, S100, CD68, Ki67
METASTASES ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:  Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
M. 25 yr. Cerebral metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma F. 52 yr.  Metastatic breast carcinoma in posterior fossa F. 51 yr.  Cerebral metastasis of malignant melanoma F. 48 yr.  Cerebral metastasis of adenocarcinoma of colon
F. 64 yr.  Multiple metastases of adenoid cystic carcinoma affecting the spine M. 57 yr. Cerebellar metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma F. 75 yr.  Occipital metastasis of follicular carcinoma of thyroid. 4-year history. HE, IH M. 11 m.  Retroperitonial neuroblastoma  metastatic  to skull. Surgical specimen, HE.
Same, IH F. 15 yr.  Metastases of choriocarcinoma (primary in hydatiform mole). Surgical specimen M. 22 yr.  Metastases of choriocarcinoma (primary in mediastinum).  Surgical specimen, HE Same, IH
M. 60 yr.  Metastases of lung adenocarcinoma. HE Same, IH
F. 68 yr. Skull metastasis of follicular adenocarcinoma of thyroid. Macro, HE Same, IH Same, EM
M. 59 yr. Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in cerebral hemisphere. HE, special stains Same, IH F. 75 yr. Metastatic adenocarcinoma in sphenoid wing mimicking meningioma on MRI. HE Same, IH
M. 60 yr. Metastatic melanoma in genu of corpus callosum mimicking butterfly glioma. HE Same, IH. 
Pictured: HMB-45 positivity in isolated tumor cell
F. 54 yr. Metastatic  melanoma in head of caudate nucleus, with peritumoral and intraventricular hemorrhage. HE. Pictured - infiltration of Virchow-Robin spaces by melanoma cells Same, IH. Texts : 
melan Acannibalism among neoplastic cells
F. 22 yr.  Cerebral metastases of choriocarcinoma 6 years after molar pregnancy. Specimen, HE Same, IH.
M. 20 yr.  Immature teratoma of testis associated with choriocarcinoma, HE Same, primary choriocarcinoma in testis, HE Same, choriocarcinoma, first brain metastasis. HE, IH Same, choriocarcinoma, second brain metastasis. Macro, HE
CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:   Endocrine Pathology
F. 8 yr. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma  M. 59 yr. Papillary
craniopharyngioma
M. 39 yr. Papillary
craniopharyngioma - squamous epithelium
F. 31 yr. Papillary
craniopharyngioma - cubic epithelium
M. 44 yr. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma -  macro specimen under stereomicroscope Same, HE, tumor epithelium Same, HE, bone metaplasia, pilocytic gliosis. Text:  craniopharyngiomas  Same, ghost cells and bone in polarized light
Same, special stains (Masson's trichrome, von Kossa for calcium) Same, electron microscopy M. 54 yr.   Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Macro specimens, HE Same, special stains (Masson's trichrome, Gomori's silver for reticulin)
Same, immunohistochemistry Same, electron microscopy M. 44 yr. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma extending into frontal lobes. Macro specimen, HE (picture, cyst wall) F. 31 yr. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Cholesterol crystals in polarized light
M. 31 yr. Pilocytic gliosis in tissue submitted as craniopharyngioma (no tumor tissue found).  Text: alpha B-crystallin Same, IH: Pilocytic gliosis - GFAP, HAM-56, CD68 Same, IH: Pilocytic gliosis -  CD34, AE1AE3, EMA, Ki-67
M. 28 yr. Papillary craniopharyngioma. HE Same, Masson's trichrome
EPIDERMOID / DERMOID CYSTS ...Neuroimaging....
F. 56 yr. Classical epidermoid cyst F. 47 yr. Ruptured epidermoid cyst with calcifications and gliosis M. 33 yr.  Epidermoid cyst of right choroid fissure. Macro, HE, Text
M. 25 yr. 
Dermoid cyst (mature cystic teratoma) of sellar region. Macro, HE, Text
M. 64 yr. Dermoid cyst  (mature teratoma) in cerebellar vermis + posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. Specimen, HE F. 1 yr. 6 m.  Intraspinal dermoid cyst. HE
M. 18 yr.  Dermoid cyst of posterior fossa insinuating into foramen magnum. Gross specimen Same, HE
M. 5 yr. Teratoma  (dermoid cyst) of pineal. Gross specimen Same, HE
PITUITARY ADENOMAS   ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates:   Endocrine Pathology
F. 37 yr. GH-secreting pituitary adenoma M. 41 yr.  Pituitary oncocytoma (null cell adenoma, oncocytic variant). HE, IH, ME, texts: normal adenohypophysis, adenomas, oncocytomas M. 49 yr. Giant invasive pituitary adenoma infiltrating skull base and nasopharynx. HE  Same, IH
F. 44 yr.  Ectopic invasive pituitary adenoma in sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity. Specimen, HE. Pictured - nuclear atypia. Text Same, special stains. Pictured : mucus filled nasal glands trapped within the adenoma Same, IH. Pictured : positivity for growth hormone in adenoma cells M. 44 yr. Oncocytoma (null cell adenoma) of  pituitary. HE
Same, IH. TSH  detectable in few cells, other hormones negative Same, EM. Tumor cell rich in abnormal mitochondria, rare secretory granules F. 67 yr.   Invasive pituitary adenoma with extensive skull base infiltration.  HE, smear, paraffin sections Same, IH. Pictured - invasive adenoma adjacent to respiratory epithelium
M. 46 yr. Eosinophil pituitary adenoma causing acromegaly.  Negative IH for HGH in spite of increased serum levels.  Gross specimen Same, HE Same, IH - GH (text), prolactin, AE1AE3,  Ki67. Pictured - GH positive cells from remaining pituitary, GH negative adenoma  Same, electron microscopy.  Text - secretory granules.
PITUITARY  CARCINOMA ......Neuroimaging....
F. 37 yr.   Pituitary carcinoma  with pulmonary metastases. 6-year follow up.  First biopsy of pituitary tumor, 2009. HE, IH Same, second biopsy of pituitary tumor, 2015. HE, IH  Same, lung biopsy, 2014.  HE, IH.  Text
GRANULAR CELL TUMOR OF NEUROHYPOPHYSIS   .Neuroimaging....
M. 36 yr.  Granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis. HE, special stains Same, IH. Text Same, EM M. 56 yr.  Granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis at III ventricle floor. HE, special stains, IH
TUMORS  OF  THE PINEAL  REGION 
GERMINAL  TUMORS...Neuroimaging........Texts (1) (2)
Germinoma of pineal. Classical case Germinoma of  pineal. HE, IH  M. 19 yr. Germinoma of  pineal. HE, IH   M. 29 yr.  Germinoma of pineal. Specimen, HE
Same, IH - PLAP, c-kit, b-HCG, AE1AE3.   Texts: PLAP, c-kit Same, IH - CD20, CD3, vimentin, Ki-67 M. 21 yr. Germinoma of  hypothalamic region infiltrating bone. HE, special stains, IH F. 16 yr. Germinoma of  hypothalamic region disseminating to IV ventricle. HE
M. 17 yr. Germinoma of pineal with non caseating, epithelioid cell granulomas. HE Same, IH -  PLAP, c-kit, CD3, CD20, CD68 Same, IH - VIM, AE1AE3, GFAP, NF, Ki-67, p53
M. 14 yr. Germinoma of hypothalamic region and III ventricle.  HE, special stains Same, IH M. 5 yr. Teratoma  (dermoid cyst) of pineal. Gross specimen Same, HE
M. 8 mth. Congenital cerebral teratoma. 
6 month follow up. 
2nd. biopsy at 8 mth including nervous tissue and teeth. HE  Text
Same, 1st. biopsy at 2 mth showing only malformed brain tissue. Immunohistochemistry
PINEAL  PARENCHYMAL TUMORS, OTHERS...Neuroimaging.....Text.
M. 42 yr.  Pineocytoma. Text F. 24 yr. Pineocytoma F. 56 yr. Pineocytoma, HE  Same, IH
Same, EM M. 52 yr. Pineocytoma, HE, IH F. 20 yr. Pineoblastoma, HE.  Text F. 14 yr. Pineoblastoma, HE, special stains
Same, IH F. 64 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of pineal. HE. Text Same, IH
M. 9 yr. Pineal cyst. Specimen, HE.  Text Same, IH F. 58 yr. Three-lobed cyst of pineal. HE, IH
CHORDOMA ...Neuroimaging....Text
Classical chordoma M. 40 yr. Chordoma of clivus - bone infiltration F. 54 yr. Chordoma of clivus. Transnasal biopsy, HE, IH Same, postmortem, HE
M. 72 yr. Chordoma of 5th lumbar vertebra extending into spinal canal.  HE, special stains Same, IH F. 68 yr. Sacral chordoma with massive recurrence after 6 years. Macro, HE
F. 32 yr.  Chordoma of clivus. HE, special stains Same, IH
PARAGANGLIOMAS ...Neuroimaging....Text
Carotid body paraganglioma, HE F. 59 yr.  Carotid body paraganglioma (another case), HE, special stains, IH Jugulotympanic paraganglioma, HE, special stains, IH F. 52 yr. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of cauda equina. MRI, HE, special stains
Same, IH Same, EM F. 54 yr. Paraganglioma of cauda equina. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH. Text : spinal paragangliomas 
BONE TUMORS ...Neuroimaging....For undergraduates
M. 23 yr. Giant cell tumor of sacrum and lumbar vertebrae.  HE.  Text F. 16 yr. Aneurysmal bone cyst of sacrum. HE.  Text M. 27 yr.  Occipital aneurysmal bone cyst. Gross specimen, scanned slides. Text Same, HE -  membranous septa
Same, HE - new bone deposition at septa M. 20 yr.  Aneurysmal bone cyst of skull and spontaneous (non traumatic) epidural hematoma.  HE F. 31 yr. Osteosarcoma of clivus secondary to irradiation for craniopharyngioma. HE
M. 42 yr.  Chondroma of skull base at petrous apex / cavernous sinus. HE, IH, text M. 16 yr.  Cystic, partially ossified chondroma of brain convexity with dural attachment. Specimen, HE. Text F. 31 yr. Chondroma of skull base. HE, IH
F. 17 yr.  Skull base chondroblastoma (temporal bone). HE - pictured - chondroblasts among chicken wire like calcifications. Text  Same, IH M. 19 yr.  Chondromyxoid fibroma  of occipital bone; intra-  and extracranial extension. Macro specimen, HE, text
Same, special stains Same, immunohistochemistry for VIM, 1A4, HHF-35 Same, IH for CD56,  S100,  CD34,  Ki67,  p53 Same, electron microscopy. Texts : fibronectin, integrins
F. 21 yr.  Fibrous dysplasia of skull. Specimen, HE, text Same, Masson's trichrome
LEIOMYOMA...Neuroimaging. LIPOMA...
Neuroimaging.
F. 71 yr. Extradural spinal leiomyoma. HE, Masson's trichrome, reticulin Same, IH. Texts: vimentin, intermediate filaments  Same, EM M. 11 yr. 6 m. Intradural cervical and lumbar lipomas. Specimen, HE, Masson's trichrome, IH. Text
MELANOCYTOMA.....Neuroimaging....
F. 39 yr. Melanocytoma of sellar region. Six-year follow-up Same, IH, EM
PERIPHERAL PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR  (pPNET)
...Neuroimaging....
F. 21 yr. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of cervical nerve root. Text F. 37 yr. Ewing's sarcoma / peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of lumbar nerve roots invading vertebrae.HE, special stains, IH M. 21 yr. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of lumbar nerve roots with paravertebral soft tissue extension Same, IH
M. 26 yr. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of cauda equina. Macro, HE, special stains Same, IH (picture, infiltrated nerve root) F. 15 yr. pPNET (peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor) / Ewing's sarcoma of spinal epidural space (T11-T12). HE Same, IH
F. 38 yr.  Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of sacral plexus and sciatic nerve.  Gross specimen, HE Same, Masson's trichrome. Pictured - desmoplastic reaction Same, IH Same, electron microscopy
SARCOMA.....Neuroimaging....
M. 17 yr. Primary myxoid sarcoma of brain. Early lesion in left parietal lobe.  HE, IH Same, second recurrence after 3 years as high grade undifferentiated sarcoma. HE, IH Same, third recurrence after 4 years at left frontal lobe. Specimen, HE Same, Masson's trichrome
Case summary
Same, IH Same, EM M. 21 yr.  Primary meningeal sarcoma with polyphenotypic antigen expression. HE Same, special stains
Same, IH, muscle antigens, vimentin Same, IH, epithelial antigens Same, IH, neural antigens Same, IH - CD34, Ki-67, p53
M. 19 yr.  Primary sarcoma of cerebral cortex. Scanned slides, HE Same, special stains Same, immunohistochemistry for GFAP, vimentin, S100 Same, IH for synaptophysin, NF, chromogranin, NeuN
Same, IH for tubulin, MAP2, CD56 Same, IH for 1A4, HHF35 Same, IH for CD34, Ki67, p53 Same, electron microscopy. Pictured - cytoplasmic filaments reminiscent of myofibrils and sarcomeres in tumor cells
..
..
MALFORMATIONS, MIGRATION DEFECTS ...Neuroimaging....
F. 1 yr. 5 m.   Hemimegalencephaly, agyria, pachygyria.  Gross specimen Same, HE Same, LFB-Nissl Same, IH for GFAP Same, VIM
Same, MAP2 Same, NeuN Same, SMI-32 Same, CD34, Ki-67
Texts. Agyria,  pachygyria, hemimegalencephaly, meningeal glial heterotopia
F. 19 yr. Grey matter heterotopia M. 15 yr. Cortical dysplasia,  Taylor type F. 33 yr. Cortical dysplasia,  Taylor type, another case F. 32 yr. Cortical dysplasia associated with ganglioglioma 
M. 2 yr. 11 m. Cortical dysplasia,  Taylor type, another case F. 15 yr. Cortical dysplasia,  non-Taylor type  M. 15 yr.  Non-Taylor cortical dysplasia + incidental pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. Temporal lobectomy, gross, HE Same, dysplastic cortex and white matter, HE
Case summary
Same, GFAP. Pictured: gliosis of molecular layer Same, VIM Same, S100, CD34, NSE. Pictured: abnormal neuron /astrocyte relationship Same, intracortical pleomorphic
xanthoastrocytoma, (chance finding). HE, IH
M. 16 yr. Polymicrogyria and cystic leukomalacia F. 40 yr. Frontoethmoidal (frontonasal) cephalocele. HE, Masson's trichrome Same, IH F. 5 yr.
Frontoethmoidal (fronto-orbital) cephalocele.  HE, Masson's trichrome
M. 4 m.  Occipital encephalocele.  Specimen, scanned slides Same, HE. Pictured : interface between skin and atrophic brain gyri Same, polymicrogyria, persistent fetal meningeal vascularization. Text Same, ependyma of lateral ventricle, cerebellar cortex, heterotopic glial nodules in leptomeninges. Text : encephaloceles
F. 3 d.  Lumbar myelomeningocele. HE, special stains Same, IH Normal skin adjacent to myelomeningocele.  IH M. 1 yr. 9 m. Tuberous sclerosis. Giant partly calcified fronto-parietal tuber (+histology, immunohistochemistry)
..
CYSTS, HAMARTOMAS, OTHERS  ...Neuroimaging....
F.  28 yr. Congenital arachnoid cyst F. 27 yr. Intradiploic arachnoid cyst. HE, text
M. 45 yr. Cervical epidural meningeal cyst. Specimen, HE, text F. 15 yr. Multiple epidural meningeal cysts. Specimen, HE F. 62 yr. Thoracic epidural meningeal cyst. HE
F. 45 yr. Spinal enterogenous cyst M. 24 yr. Spinal enterogenous cyst. HE, special stains Same, IH Same, EM
M. 5 mths.  Choroid plexus cyst of left lateral ventricle. Specimen, stereoscopical images, scanned slides, HE. Text F. 37 yr.  Rathke's cleft cyst. HE, special stains. Image bank F. 70 yr. Rathke's cleft cyst. HE
F. 14 yr.  Colloid cyst of III ventricle. Gross specimen, HE, Masson's trichrome Same,  IH - AE1AE3,  34bE12, 35bH11, CK7, EMA, CD68, VIM, Ki67 M. 55 yr.  Colloid cyst of III ventricle. HE Same, IH -  AE1AE3,  34bE12, CK7, CK20, CD68, Ki67 
F. 22 yr.  Colloid cyst of III ventricle.  HE, Masson's trichrome, IH - AE1AE3,  34bE12, EMA,  Ki67 M. 25 yr.  Hypothalamic hamartoma. Specimen, HE Same, IH, text F. 3 yr.  Hypothalamic  hamartoma. HE
....
OTHER  DISEASES...Neuroimaging....
F. 59 yr. Late pseudotumoral necrosis after gamma knife irradiation for cavernoma M. 41 yr. Radiation induced pseudotumoral brain necrosis 5 years after oligoastrocytoma. Surgical specimen, HE.
Case summary
Same, special stains Same, immunohistochemistry
F. 59 yr. Radiation necrosis 9 months after RT for glioblastoma multiforme. HE, Masson's trichrome Same, immunohistochemistry M. 21 yr. Amputation neuroma. Macro, HE, special stains, IH
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