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General and Special Pathology  Neuropathology and Neuroimaging Neuroimaging - Cases Neuroimaging Basics
Alphabetical index (Pathology) Alphabetical index (Neuro) English Homepage Neuropathology - Cases
Recent additions This page in Portuguese Site in Portuguese Histopathological techniques
For undergraduates Normal nerve tissue and 
pathological reactions
Vascular Trauma
Inflammation Tumors
Additional pages Normal anatomy Normal tissue and pathological reactions Inflammation
Degenerative, demyelinating diseases, malformations Tumors
Normal nervous tissue and basic pathological reactions
Normal nervous tissue. General pathology of neurons and glia Normal cerebral cortex - electron microscopy Recent ischemic lesion  - HE, immunohistochemistry Lysosomal storage disorders
Alzheimer's disease Brain edema, herniations, hydrocephalus Massive cerebellar herniation into spinal subarachnoid space down to midthoracic level 
Vascular pathology 
Cerebral atherosclerosis  Infarctions Venous thrombosis Fat embolism
Cerebral hemorrhage Congenital aneurysms Atherosclerotic aneurysms 
Skull fractures and cerebral contusions Traumatic hematomas Chronic subdural hematoma (incidental autopsy finding)
Inflammatory  Pathology 
Viral encephalitides Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease Purulent meningitis, abscess, empyema Neurotuberculosis, neurosyphilis
Mycoses Congenital toxoplasmosis Cysticercosis
Astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme - macro specimens Astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme - microscopy Medulloblastoma Meningioma
Schwannoma Metastases

Normal Anatomy 
Basic Atlas of Human Neuroanatomy 

Dept of Structural and Functional Biology

Dept of Pathology

Atlas of the human brain in coronal sections


Dept of Pathology

Dept of Structural and Functional Biology

Atlas of Macroscopic
Neuroanatomy for Pathologists

Alphabetical index of structures with links to pictures (in Portuguese)

Normal adult brain, external appearance Cerebral arteries and circle of Willis Cranial nerves
Cerebellum and brain stem in axial sections Adult brain in axial sections  Single axial section, another specimen  Adult brain in coronal sections
Adult brain, midline structures Adult brain in paragittal sections Brain of normal newborn at term Brain of premature infant
Normal skull base and orbit (bone specimens) Sphenoid bone Skull base with dura mater and cranial nerve roots Comparison of anatomical specimens, CT and MRI of nasal cavity and frontal region (to illustrate cases of esthesioneuroblastoma)
Anatomy of skull. 

Series of 11 axial sections of intact head, brain in situ, injected arteries.

Anatomy of skull. Axial sections of intact head, brain in situ. Arteries not injected.  Axial CT scan of normal skull base, bone settings Anatomy of skull. Coronal sections of intact head, brain in situ.  - complete 12 double-faced slice series Normal skull in coronal CT, soft tissue settings
Anatomy of the Skull and Brain in Coronal Sections.  Correlation between anatomical specimens, histology, computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Normal skull in coronal CT, bone settings Normal skull in coronal MRI, T1-SE (spin echo) Normal skull in coronal MRI, T1-IR (inversion recovery) and T2 (comparative series) Normal cerebral digital angiography
Normal arterial MRA (magnetic resonance angiography) Normal arterial MRA  (another case) Normal venous MRA Normal venous MRA (another case)
Atlas of middle and inner ear

Dept of Structural and Functional Biology 

Dept of Pathology

  HE LFB-Nissl MAP2
Atlas of the  normal human hippocampus

Index page

Neurofilament Synaptophysin Chromogranin GFAP
Vimentin CD34 CD68 HAM56
Texts (in Portuguese): 

Structure of the  hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum.

Hippocampal connections and diagram.

Normal nervous tissue and basic pathological reactions
Motor cerebral cortex, HE. Pictured - giant pyramidal neurons of Betz Visual cerebral cortex, HE. Pictured - granular neurons and columns of afferent axons Cerebral cortex, LFB - Nissl Cerebral cortex, IH for MAP2
Cerebral cortex, IH for  NeuN Cerebral cortex, IH for  GFAP Cerebral cortex, IH for  VIM Cerebral cortex, electron microscopy
Medulla oblongata  - immunohistochemistry Pineal - HE, IH Choroid plexus and ependyma from autopsy. HE, IH Choroid plexus  - biopsy. HE, IH
Cerebellum - HE Cerebellum (dog) - LFB/Nissl Cerebellum  - IH for glial antigens: GFAP, VIM, S100  Cerebellum  - IH for neuronal antigens: NSE, NF, SNF
M. 22 yr. Lhermitte-Duclos disease, area of normal cerebellum.  HE, LFB-Nissl Same, IH for MAP2, NeuN, NF, synaptophysin Same, IH for GFAP, S100, CD34 Spinal cord
Normal sensory ganglion, HE, Masson, reticulin  Normal sensory ganglion,  IH Cauda equina Spinal nerve root
Filum terminale Sympathetic ganglion Normal human median nerve.  HE, Masson's trichrome, IH for neurofilament and S100 Normal small nerve of ocular conjunctiva, electron microscopy
Normal human skeletal muscle, electron microscopy Normal temporal artery, HE, Masson's trichrome, Verhoeff Corpora amylacea Periventricular leukomalacia,  HE, GFAP, VIM
Normal human sympathetic ganglion
HE Masson's trichrome, neurons  Same, sympathetic nerves Reticulin
SMI-32 Synaptophysin Chromogranin S-100
Normal human sensory ganglion
HE.  Normal posterior root (sensory) ganglion. Globose unipolar neurons amid axons and connective tissue.  Sensory neuron. Central nucleus with nucleolus, abundant cytoplasm without dendrites, surrounded by satellite cells.  Myelinated axons in herringbone pattern
Masson.  Sensory neuron Myelinated axons in herringbone pattern Reticulin.  Reticulin fibers surrounding neurons and axons. 
NF.  Neurofilament protein positive in neurons and axons S-100.
Positive in nuclei and cytoplasm of Schwann and satellite cells.  Weakly positive in neurons. 
Positive in cytoplasm of Schwann cells,  satellite cells and connective tissue. Negative in neurons. 
CD56. Positive in cytoplasm of Schwann cells, satellite cells, negative in neurons and myelin  CD57.   Positive in myelin sheaths, negative in neurons and satellite cells CD34.  Positive only in capillaries, regative in neural elements
This posterior root ganglion was excised unintentionally during surgery for a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of L4 spinal root.  See MRI and tumor histology (1)(2)
Inflammatory Pathology....See also Inflammations Image Bank
Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy  Cerebral aspergillosis. Macro (from inflammations image bank)  Same, HE Same, Grocott
Systemic aspergillosis. Macro (from inflammations image bank)  Same, Grocott + HE Cerebral chromomycosis (cladosporiosis).  HE Same, Grocott + hematoxylin
Same, Grocott + light green, Masson's trichrome. Text
Demyelinating, degenerative diseases
See also Neuroimaging, Neuropathology
Multiple sclerosis - macroscopical PM specimens  Multiple sclerosis - scanned microscopical slides Multiple sclerosis - microscopy Multiple sclerosis -  macro/microscopical comparisons.  Text
Adrenoleukodystrophy. Pictured : massive demyelination of frontal white matter sparing U fibers Metachromatic leukodystrophy. Sulphatide storage in facial nerve nucleus in pons Metachromatic leukodystrophy. Sulphatide storage in macrophages in cerebellar white matter Sudanophilic leukodystrophy. Cavitating demyelination of frontal white matter and ventricular dilatation
Sudanophilic leukodystrophy. Demyelination of temporal white matter sparing U fibers Krabbe's globoid cell leukodystrophy  - 3 cases.  Demyelination of occipital white matter sparing U fibers Krabbe's globoid cell leukodystrophy. Globoid cells (macrophages) in cerebellar white matter Pelizaeus - Merzbacher's leukodystrophy. Tigroid appearance of cerebral white matter
Leukodystrophies - Illustrated linked text  (in Portuguese)
Alexander's leukodystrophy. Megalencephaly; softened friable hemispheric white matter Alexander's leukodystrophy. Abundant Rosenthal fibers in lumbar spinal cord Canavan's leukodystrophy. Spongy degeneration of hemispheric white matter M.  5 yr.   Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy and  leukodystrophy. Muscle biopsy. Brain MRI
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease -  macroscopical PM specimens, scanned microscopical slides  Same, microscopy. Text Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. 
Post mortem examination of brain
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.  Another case, 
autopsy findings
Same, HE. Text F. 81 yr.  Senile plaques at hippocampus.  HE, special stains Same, Congo red and polarized light Same, IH
Malformations          See also Neuroimaging, Neuropathology
Polymicrogyria. Text
Optic nerve glioma (pilocytic astrocytoma) Oligodendroglioma Ependymoma Myxopapillary ependymoma 
Choroid plexus papilloma Neurofibromatosis Tuberous sclerosis Hemangioblastoma
Colloid cyst of third ventricle. Text Rathke's cleft cyst. Text. Hyperprolactinemia Text. Chordoma. Text Tumors of the pineal. Texts (1)(2)
Brain stem gliomas Lhermitte-Duclos disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum). Pictured :  transition between normal and dysplastic cerebellar cortex.  Text
General and Special Pathology Neuropathology and Neuroimaging Neuroimaging Basics Neuroimaging - Cases
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