Neuroimaging  Case  Studies
Updated  30/9/2017 e-mails : gradanat@fcm.unicamp.br____gradanat@unicamp.br
General and Special Pathology  Neuropathology and Neuroimaging Neuropathology - Cases Neuroimaging Basics
Alphabetical index (Pathology) Alphabetical index (Neuro) English Homepage Neuro Image Bank
Recent additions This page in Portuguese Site in Portuguese Histopathological  staining  methods
....
Vascular Inflammatory Demyelinating Tumors (classified) Tumors (alphabetical) Malformations Others
Tumors
classified

diffuse (low grade) astrocytoma
glioblastoma multiforme
multifocal glioblastoma multiforme
gliosarcoma
granular cell astrocytoma
gliomatosis  cerebri
primary extracerebral meningeal glioma
congenital cerebral glioma
pilocytic astrocytoma
pilomyxoid astrocytoma
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
oligodendroglioma
oligoastrocytoma
ependymoma
tanycytic ependymoma
myxopapillary ependymoma
subependymoma
ependymoblastoma

choroid plexus papilloma
choroid plexus carcinoma
astroblastoma
chordoid glioma of third ventricle
angiocentric glioma
dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease)
gangliocytoma
ganglioglioma
desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma / ganglioglioma (DIA / DIG)
central neurocytoma
dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT)
glioneuronal tumor
primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
medulloblastoma
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor
meningiomas:
.....by topography
.....more cases
hemangiopericytoma
solitary fibrous tumor of meninges
schwannoma
neurofibromatosis_1
neurofibromatosis_2
ganglioneuroblastoma
neuroblastoma
neuroendocrine carcinoma
hemangioblastoma
lymphoma
multiple myeloma / plasmacytoma
histiocytoses
metastases
craniopharyngioma
colloid cyst of III ventricle
epidermoid / dermoid cysts
pituitary adenoma
pituitary carcinoma
granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis
germinal tumors
teratoma
pineal parenchymal tumors
chordoma
paraganglioma
bone tumors
leiomyoma
lipoma
melanocytoma
peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET)
sarcoma
..
Tumors
alphabetical

angiocentric glioma
astroblastoma
atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor
bone tumors
central neurocytoma
congenital cerebral glioma
chordoid glioma of third ventricle
chordoma
choroid plexus carcinoma
choroid plexus papilloma
colloid cyst of III ventricle
craniopharyngioma
desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma / ganglioglioma (DIA / DIG)
diffuse (low grade) astrocytoma
dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT)
dysplastic gangliocytoma of cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease)ependymoblastoma
ependymoma
epidermoid  / dermoid cysts

gangliocytoma
ganglioglioma
ganglioneuroblastoma
germinal tumors
glioblastoma multiforme
gliomatosis  cerebri
glioneuronal tumor
gliosarcoma
granular cell astrocytoma
granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis
hemangioblastoma
hemangiopericytoma
histiocytoses
leiomyoma
lipoma
lymphoma
medulloblastoma
melanocytoma
meningiomas:
.....by topography
.....more cases
metastases
multifocal glioblastoma multiforme
multiple myeloma / plasmacytoma
myxopapillary ependymoma
neuroblastoma
neuroendocrine carcinoma
neurofibromatosis_1
neurofibromatosis_2
oligoastrocytoma
oligodendroglioma
paraganglioma
peripheral primitive
neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET)
pilocytic astrocytoma
pilomyxoid astrocytoma
pineal parenchymal tumors
pituitary adenoma
pituitary carcinoma
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
primary extracerebral meningeal glioma
primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)
sarcoma
schwannoma
solitary fibrous tumor of meninges
subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
subependymoma
tanycytic ependymoma
teratoma
tumors of pineal region
..
Latest additions: 30th September, 2017.  Table of recent additions.
Each clickable thumbnail  leads to one case.  Please note: all case pages and texts are in Portuguese.
Red frame  -   case also has a Neuropathology page, accessible through bottom of  Neuroimaging page. 
Undergraduate Course in Neuropathology : macro specimens, slides, images & texts (in Portuguese only)
Undergraduate Course in Neuroimaging
Neuropathology case studies
Correlative Neuropathology - Neuroimaging cases
Alphabetical indexes:  general; neuropathology & neuroimaging

Profs. Luciano de Souza Queiroz (Dept. of Pathology) and Verônica de Araújo Zanardi (Dept of  Radiology). 
Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 
Campinas, São Paulo State, BRAZIL. 
e-mails : gradanat@fcm.unicamp.br____gradanat@unicamp.br

..
VASCULAR PATHOLOGY  ...Neuropathology....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
M. 28 yr. Embolic infarcts  M. 51 yr. Cavernoma of optic pathways and reactive gliosis mimicking pilocytic astrocytoma M. 9 yr. Left temporal cavernoma F. 14 yr.  Left frontal cavernoma of gyrus rectus
F. 36 yr.  Cavernoma of  spinobulbar transition F. 28 yr.  Large occipital cavernoma (cavernous hemangioma) M. 38 yr. Left parietal cavernoma (cavernous hemangioma) extending from ventricle to hemispheric surface F. 28 yr. Cavernoma of right cingulate gyrus
Text : vascular malformations of the central nervous system: telangiectasias, cavernomas, AVMs
M. 16 yr. Left frontal cavernoma, first bleeding. Case summary, CT scans Same, early phase MRI Same, control after one year Same, new bleeding 
(2 years from onset)
M. 24 yr. Large right frontal embolized arteriovenous malformation M. 47 yr. Frontal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) M. 47 yr.  Temporal arterio-venous malformation. Digital angiography F. 57 yr. Capillary telangiectases  associated with cortical dysplasia 
F. 25 yr. Extradural capillary hemangioma of ligamentum flavum compressing thoracic spinal cord
F. 25 yr.  Sickle cell disease.  Infarcts of both middle cerebral artery territories. M. 13 yr.  Sickle cell disease.  Infarcts of carotid artery territories. Pictured : bilateral absence of carotid flow on MRA. M. 22 yr.  Sickle cell disease.  Infarct of left middle cerebral artery territory F. 19 yr.  Sickle cell disease. Multiple infarts, arterial watershed zone  lesions
Sickle cell disease - illustrated text (Portuguese)
F. 27 yr.  Sickle cell disease. Arterial watershed zone lesions in white matter, with cavitations M. 31 yr.  Sickle cell disease. Arterial watershed zone lesions M. 18 yr.  Sickle cell disease. Lacunae in basal ganglia. Arterial watershed zone lesions M. 58 yr. Basilar artery thrombosis in sickle cell disease
F. 50 yr.  Sturge-Weber syndrome.  Calcifications in plain skull X-ray films M. 12 yr.  Sturge-Weber syndrome.  Cortical calcifications  showing as bands of low signal intensity in T2 WI M. 1 yr 9 m. Sturge- Weber syndrome.  Contrast enhancement of cortical angiomas and choroid plexus in left hemisphere.  M. 48 yr.  Primary necrotizing vasculitis of central nervous system. Text
Sturge-Weber - Illustrated text (Portuguese)
F. 57 yr.   Primary cerebral vasculitis F. 62 yr.  Amyloid angiopathy and brain hemorrhage. Text F. 72 yr.  Amyloid angiopathy, parenchymatous and ventricular hemorrhage F. 62 yr. Massive subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by systemic aspergillosis and leptomeningeal vasculitis. Patient also had a successfully treated bacterial brain abscess. See gross appearance and histology of brain, lungs and heart.  More on subarachnoid hemorrhage.
M. 7 yr. 8 m. Cerebral meningioangiomatosis    MRI, CT
....
INFLAMMATORY  DISEASE.  ...Neuropathology...
For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging
.......
VIRUSES ...Neuropathology. ...For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging
F. 1 yr 8 m Herpes simplex encephalitis, acute phase M. 59 yr.  Acute herpetic encephalitis F. 71 yr.  Acute herpetic encephalitis M. 25 yr.  Acute herpetic encephalitis
For more on herpetic encephalitis - see  undergraduate coursetext, image collection, more neuroimaging cases
M. 44 yr.  Acute herpetic encephalitis M. 58 yr.  Herpetic encephalitis - acute and subacute phases, the latter with cortical hemorrhage  F. 35 yr.  Herpetic encephalitis - subacute phase with cortical hemorrhage  F. 20 yr. Herpetic encephalitis. Late  sequelae after 10 years
M. 37 yr. Herpetic encephalitis. Late  sequelae with atrophy and cavitation of left temporal lobe M. 23 yr.  Herpetic encephalitis. Late  sequelae with atrophy and cavitation of right temporal lobe M. 27 yr.  Herpetic encephalitis. Late  sequelae with symmetrical atrophy and cavitation of temporal lobes
M. 44 yr. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy  Text M. 62 yr.  Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy   (PML).  Text M. 25 yr. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy   (PML) affecting cerebellum and brain stem M. 41 yr. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy   (PML)
F. 46 yr.  Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). MRI.  Same patient has low-grade B cell lymphoma. CT - splenomegaly
M. 50 yr. AIDS, giant cell encephalitis Same, AIDS - Cerebral toxoplasmosis Same, AIDS, mycobacteriosis of abdominal lymph nodes M. 47 yr.  HIV encephalopathy.  Text
M. 52 yr. HIV encephalopathy
......
BACTERIA ...Neuropathology. ...For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 12 yr. Cerebral abscess due to Streptococcus intermedius (botryomycosis) F. 62 yr.   Cerebral bacterial abscess. 
3 MRIs showing lesion regression with treatment. Patient also had systemic aspergillosis causing massive subarachnoid hemorrhage
M. 34 yr. Neurotuberculosis in  HIV+ patient M. 38 yr.  Circumscribed tuberculous meningitis in HIV + patient
M. 32 yr.   Neurotuberculosis 
in unusual presentation with symmetrical necrotizing vasculitis of midline cerebral cortex and corpus callosum
..
FUNGI ..Neuropathology. ...For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 63 yr. Paracoccidioidomycoma of cerebellopontine angle M. 49 yr. Cerebellar abscess by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis M. 71 yr. Cerebellar abscess caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis M. 47 yr.
Paracoccidioidomycosis. Multiple nodular cerebral lesions with peripheral contrast enhancement mimicking metastases
M. 64 yr. Pseudotumoral paracoccidioidomycosis  of cerebellum
M. 34 yr.  Cryptococcoma of right parietal lobe. For cryptococcosis - see also  Undergraduate course M. 32 yr.   Cerebral  granulomatous cryptococcosis: 
circumscribed meningeal, cerebral lesions 
F. 62 yr. Systemic and cerebral aspergillosis causing massive subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient also had a successfully treated bacterial cerebral abscess F. 67 yr.  Rhino-orbital aspergillosis
Aspergillosis. See also image bank, neuro, inflammations
M. 38 yr.  Mucormycosis of nasal cavity, orbit and brain. Text M. 54 yr.  Cerebral histoplasmosis. MRI 9/2011. Hydrocephalus, small periventricular  lesions Same, MRI 3/2012. Obliteration of third ventricle Same, CT 3/2012. Obliteration of third ventricle and small calcified nodule in right anterior horn of lateral ventricle
Case summarytext.
....
PROTOZOA ..Neuropathology. ...For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
F. 32 yr. Neurotoxoplasmosis in  HIV+ patient M. 35 yr. Neurotoxoplasmosis in  HIV+ patient F. 27 yr.  Pseudotumoral toxoplasmosis in right parietal lobe
......
METAZOA ....Neuropathology. ...For undergraduates:...Neuropathology....Neuroimaging.
M. 49 yr. Spinal racemose cysticercosis  (intradural, extramedullary cysts) M. 35 yr. Giant Cysticercus cellulosae of right cerebral hemisphere F. 67 yr. Necrotic Cysticercus cellulosae of cerebral hemisphere - reactional changes in brain tissue  F. 42 yr.   Intraventricular Cysticercus cellulosae
F. 31 yr.  Cysticercosis cellulosae of brain hemispheres and IV ventricle F. 47 yr.  Cysticercus racemosus of brain. CT
M. 32 yr. Cerebral
schistosomiasis
F. 37 yr. Spinal cord schistosomiasis M. 67 yr. Echinococcosis of the central nervous system
..
OTHERS .....Neuropathology. ..
F. 33 yr.  Lymphocytic hypophysitis  masquerading as macroadenoma F. 54 yr. Cerebro-spinal sarcoidosis. Text F. 51 yr.  Sarcoidosis of falx and dura mater of cerebral convexity F. 72 yr. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (spongiform encephalopathy). Text : diffusion-weighted MRI in early diagnosis of CJD
....
DEMYELINATING  DISEASES....Neuropathology. Image bank
F. 32 yr.  Pseudotumoral multiple sclerosis. CT, MRI F. 49 yr.  Multiple sclerosis. Acute phase lesions with contrast enhancement F. 25 yr.  Multiple sclerosis.  Typical lesions in corpus callosum and corona radiata F. 39 yr.  Multiple sclerosis. Chronic demyelinating lesions in centrum semiovale
M. 17 yr. Multiple sclerosis. Lesions in corpus callosum and hemispheric white matter M. 19 yr. Multiple sclerosis.  Severe case with widespread multifocal demyelination F. 50 yr.  Multiple sclerosis.  Lesions in pons, cerebellum and internal capsule.  F. 13 yr.  Severe multiple sclerosis in early adolescence.  Two-year follow up
F. 15 yr. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM),  pseudotumoral form F. 53 yr. Central pontine myelinolysis M. 49 yr. Central pontine myelinolysis
F. 48 yr.  Pseudotumoral demyelinating lesion of   cerebral hemispheric white matter F. 49 yr. Pseudotumoral demyelinating lesions in right cerebral hemisphere F. 48 yr.  Single demyelinating lesion at right parieto-occipital region Same, MRI after 5 months
....
LEUKODYSTROPHIES .
Neuropathology..Image bank. .Illustrated linked text (in Portuguese)
M.  6 yr. Adrenoleukodystrophy M.  11 yr. Adrenoleukodystrophy M.  10 yr. Adrenoleukodystrophy M.  7 yr. Metachromatic leukodystrophy
F. 30  yr. Probable metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult form F.  30  yr. Probable metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult form M.  5 yr. Leukodystrophy associated with congenital muscular dystrophy due to merosin deficiency. Muscle biopsy M.  11 yr.    van der Knaap's disease  (megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts). 11-year follow-up. Selection from 4 MRIs
Exams in full
M. 43 yr. Leukodystrophy with vacuolar changes of white matter reminiscent of Canavan's disease
..
 
TUMORS
..
DIFFUSE  ASTROCYTOMAS - BY  TOPOGRAPHY.   Neuropathology.
For undergraduates: ....Neuropathology.....Neuroimaging.
F. 47 yr. Small low grade frontal astrocytoma (incidental MRI finding). M. 35 yr. Small  low grade frontal astrocytoma in premotor area  M. 33 yr. Frontal mesial low grade diffuse astrocytoma  F. 30 yr. Low grade frontal astrocytoma with early anaplasia (foci of contrast enhancement) 
M. 44 yr. Poorly circumscribed low grade frontal astrocytoma M. 36 yr. Recurrent frontobasal low grade astrocytoma, 6 yr followup  M. 7 yr. Low grade solid-cystic  astrocytoma of hemispheric white matter M. 43 yr. Low grade diffuse astrocytoma of left hemisphere infiltrating from temporal lobe through thalamus
M. 43 yr. Diffuse temporal astrocytoma,  transtentorial herniation and midbrain compression  M. 52 yr.  Diffuse temporal astrocytoma infiltrating brainstem M. 39 yr.  Diffuse low grade temporal astrocytoma  with anaplastic recurrence after 4 years M. 32 yr. Anaplastic solid-cystic
frontal gemistocytic
astrocytoma (WHO grade III)
F. 10 yr. Anaplastic astrocytoma of centrum semiovale M. 53 yr.  Paramedian anaplastic astrocytoma with contralateral extension via corpus callosum M. 68 yr. Anaplastic astrocytoma  of corpus callosum infiltrating from  hippocampus to hypothalamus via fornix F. 54 yr.  Low grade astrocytoma of insular region
M. 34 yr. Low grade astrocytoma of insular region M. 38 yr.  Low grade astrocytoma of insular region F. 40 yr.  Low grade astrocytoma of insular region extending into frontal and temporal lobes M. 52 yr.  Low grade astrocytoma of thalamus with secondary infiltration of hippocampus and insula
Text: Diffuse midline gliomas (includes tumors of thalamus, brain stem and spinal cord).
M. 5 yr. Diffuse low grade astrocytoma of thalamus and basal ganglia F. 51 yr. Low grade astrocytoma of left thalamus extending into centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and right hippocampus F. 43 yr.  Bilateral thalamic astrocytoma F. 11 yr.  Diffuse astrocytoma of right thalamus with anaplastic foci
M. 37 yr.  Anaplastic thalamic astrocytoma F. 46 yr. Low grade periaqueductal astrocytoma  M. 21 yr.  Low grade periaqueductal astrocytoma  M. 8 yr.  Anaplastic  astrocytoma of pons 
F. 41 yr.  Low grade astrocytoma of pons and medulla M. 36 yr. Diffuse astrocytoma of brain stem F. 4 yr.  Diffuse anaplastic astrocytoma of pons.  MRI F. 11 yr.  Exophytic anaplastic  astrocytoma of lateral medulla oblongata
M. 32yr.  Low grade astrocytoma of cervical spinal cord M. 29 yr.  Anaplastic astrocytoma  of lumbar spinal cord F. 26 days.  Congenital anaplastic astrocytoma of temporal lobe. CT M. 19 yr. Diffuse low grade astrocytoma of thoracic spinal cord.  Spread to cauda equina and frontal metastasis
MRIs in detail
GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME
...Neuropathology....
For undergraduates:  Neuropathology. Neuroimaging.
F. 37 yr. Glioblastoma multiforme with unusual presentation and rapid  course F. 42 yr. Bilateral frontal glioblastoma multiforme M. 20 yr. Left frontal giant cell glioblastoma  F. 32 yr. Glioblastoma multiforme of pontine tegmentum
M. 46 yr. Glioblastoma multiforme of cerebellum F. 72 yr. Temporoparietal glioblastoma multiforme  F. 59 yr.  Left sided temporal glioblastoma multiforme  Same case 9 months after surgery and radiotherapy - pseudotumoral radiation necrosis 
F. 27 yr. Giant cell glioblastoma F. 5 months. Glioblastoma multiforme of left cerebral hemisphere (presumably congenital) F. 58 yr.  Giant cell glioblastoma with a component of conventional glioblastoma multiforme F. 64 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of pineal
F. 60 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of midbrain and pineal region M. 23 yr. Frontal giant cell glioblastoma M. 11 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of pons.  MRI M. 7 yr. 2 m. Glioblastoma multiforme of thalamus, CT, MRI. Text
Multifocal glioblastoma multiforme  - 12 cases.   Summary. Text
M. 67 yr.  Multifocal glioblastoma multiforme
6 foci
M. 73 yr.  4 foci F. 75 yr.  4 foci M. 49 yr.  4 foci
M. 55 yr.  3 foci M. 59 yr.  3 foci  F. 70 yr.  3 foci F. 71 yr.  2 foci
M. 55 yr.  2 foci M. 48 yr.  2 foci M. 55 yr.  2 foci F. 56 yr.  2 foci
GLIOSARCOMA ...Neuropathology.
M. 56 yr. Left temporal gliosarcoma. Text M. 4 d. Congenital gliosarcoma at foramen of Monro, hydrocephalus, spontaneous ventricular bleeding M. 49 yr.  Gliosarcoma of left frontal lobe F. 48 yr.  Right temporal gliosarcoma.  Original MRI
Same, recurrence 4 months after surgery M. 63 yr.   Fronto-temporal gliosarcoma
GRANULAR CELL ASTROCYTOMA OF BRAIN ...Neuropathology.
M. 68 yr.  Granular cell astrocytoma of brain. CT, MRIs 2011.  Case summary, text Same, MRI, post-operative followup after one year. 
GLIOMATOSIS  CEREBRI...Neuropathology....
F. 53 yr. Gliomatosis cerebri secondary to pontine anaplastic astrocytoma M. 44 yr. Gliomatosis cerebri secondary to left temporal oligoastrocytoma  F. 6 yr. Gliomatosis cerebri (anaplastic diffuse astrocytoma of rapid growth). 1st  MRI Same, after 40 days. Multiple foci of contrast enhancement
M. 32 yr. Gliomatosis cerebri initiating as left hemispheric 
oligoastrocytoma.
Early CT, 6/2004
Same, focus of annular enhancement in right hemisphere. 
MRI 4/2006
Same after two months: tumor dissemination in right hemisphere. 
MRI 6/2006
F. 46 yr. Bilateral frontal gliomatosis involving genu of corpus callosum. Text
PRIMARY EXTRACEREBRAL MENINGEAL GLIOMA ...Neuropathology.
M. 42 yr. Primary extracerebral meningeal glioma. Text
CONGENITAL  CEREBRAL  GLIOMA   ...Neuropathology.
F. 3 m. 15 d.  to  3 yr. 4 m.  Anaplastic congenital glioma with spontaneous maturation and regression.  3-year follow-up
Case summary
PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA ....Text.......Neuropathology - cases....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
Cerebellum -  classical  cases
F. 8 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum. CT M. 21 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum. CT M.  yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum. CT F. 20 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of vermis 
M. 3 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of vermis F. 5 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellar hemisphere M. 14 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellar hemisphere F. 23 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellar hemisphere. 17-year follow-up
Cerebellum -  atypical  cases
M. 73 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of vermis in the 8th decade. M. 72 yr. Infiltrating cystic pilocytic astrocytoma of vermis in the 8th decade. F. 37 yr.  Aggressive pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with extensive meningeal infiltration F. 15 yr. Bilobed, solid and cystic pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with abundant vascular proliferation 
M. 58 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellar vermis with ventricular seeding. 3-year follow-up M. 63 yr. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma with atypia and high Ki-67 index
F. 66 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellar vermis in the 7th decade M. 51 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of cerebellum with unusually luxuriant capillary proliferation (prompting differential diagnosis with hemangioblastoma)
Midbrain / Quadrigeminal plate
F. 9 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of quadrigeminal plate F. 20 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of midbrain  M. 68 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of midbrain tegmentum and pons with cerebellar extension
Midbrain / Quadrigeminal plate Optic nerve
F. 14 yr.   Pilocytic astrocytoma of quadrigeminal plate with CSF seeding of lumbosacral cul-de-sac F. 9 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic nerve M. 11 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic nerve. Extension to optic chiasm
Hypothalamus, diencephalon, basal region of cerebral hemispheres
F. 11 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of hypothalamic region M. 21 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic chiasm and hypothalamic region,  anaplastic recurrence F. 6 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic chiasm growing into third ventricle F. 25 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic chiasm with third ventricle extension
F. 21 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of chiasmatic region and third ventricle M. 12 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of basal cerebral hemisphere F. 6 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of basal cerebral hemisphere recurring after 4 months F. 49  yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of deep cerebral hemisphere with explosive growth in 4 months
Cerebral hemispheres (cortical-subcortical)
M. 16 yr. Right temporal pilocytic  astrocytoma F. 15 yr. Right temporal pilocytic  astrocytoma F. 15 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of isthmus of cingulate gyrus M. 21 yr. Pilocytic astrocytoma of frontal pole
M. 46 yr. Cystic frontal pilocytic astrocytoma 
with abundant vascular proliferation 
M. 62 yr. Anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma of right frontal lobe M. 24 yr. Occipital pilocytic astrocytoma featuring grossly abnormal vessels, leptomeningeal and parenchymal infiltration and ventricular seeding. Case summary.  Text:  pilocytic astrocytomas
M. 55 yr. Temporal pilocytic astrocytoma
Intraventricular Spinal
M. 37 yr. Intraventricular
pilocytic astrocytoma
M. 38 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of thoracic/lumbar spinal cord F. 10 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of cervical/thoracic spinal cord M. 28 yr.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of brain stem and cervical spinal cord
PILOMYXOID  ASTROCYTOMA      .Neuropathology.
F. 5 yr.   Pilomyxoid astrocytoma M. 8 yr. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma at septum pellucidum
PLEOMORPHIC  XANTHOASTROCYTOMA...Neuropathology....
M. 17 yr. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  of left premotor area M. 7 yr. Left parieto-occipital pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma M. 26 yr. Left frontal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma M. 31 yr. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with lipomatous differentiation
F. 27 yr. Complex glioneuronal tumor:
xanthoastrocytoma-
ganglioglioma-
ependymoma
F. 27 yr. Left parietal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. F. 14 yr. Solid-cystic  temporal
xanthoastrocytoma  (microscopy - glycogen accumulation)
M. 15 yr.  Occipital paraventricular pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  Same, recurrence after  five years M. 36 yr.   Fronto-parietal mesial pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma M. 11 yr. Frontal pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
TUBEROUS  SCLEROSIS  &  SUBEPENDYMAL  GIANT  CELL  ASTROCYTOMA...Neuropathology....For undergraduates: Neuropathology
M. 5 yr. Subependymal glial nodules  M. 31 yr. Subependymal glial nodules, cerebellar calcifications, 
sclerosis of diploe
M. 23 yr. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and calcified nodules M. 16 yr. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma F. 6 yr. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and calcified nodules, cortical tubers M. 28 yr. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) unassociated with tuberous sclerosis. Text
M. 4 yr. 4 m.  Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis. MRI Same, multiple tubers in cerebral hemispheres M. 1 yr. 9 m. Tuberous sclerosis. Giant partly calcified fronto-parietal tuber, CT, MRI
OLIGODENDROGLIOMA ...Neuropathology....For undergraduates:   Neuropathology
M. 23 a.  Oligodendroglioma. Calcifications in plain skull radiograph F. 20 a. Oligodendroglioma of left cerebral hemisphere. Calcifications in CT M. 59 a. Oligodendroglioma of left cerebral hemisphere  F. 42 a. Operated right frontal oligodendroglioma. Transcalvarian herniation
M. 3 a. Solid-cystic oligodendroglioma of left cerebral hemisphere M. 32 a. Solid-cystic oligodendroglioma of left cerebral hemisphere (another case) M. 48 a. Heavily calcified
oligodendroglioma, 7-year follow up.
CT (2000 - 2006)
Same, MRI (2006). Diffuse infiltrative growth, invasion of right hemisphere via corpus callosum
Case summary
Same, after 8 months (2007). Development of  contrast enhancing anaplastic foci M. 62 a. Oligodendroglioma of basal cerebral hemisphere
OLIGOASTROCYTOMA...Neuropathology....
M. 22 yr. Left frontal oligoastrocytoma. M. 44 yr. Left temporal oligoastrocytoma with gliomatosis cerebri  M. 38 yr. Well circumscribed frontal oligoastrocytoma M. 36 yr. Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma -  radiation brain necrosis after 5 years.  Pictured: original tumor.
Case summary
EPENDYMOMA ...Neuropathology....For undergraduates:   Neuropathology
F. 39 yr. Left hemispheric ependymoma M. 22 yr. Left solid-cystic hemispheric ependymoma  F. 25 yr. Right solid-cystic hemispheric ependymoma M. 3 yr. Ependymoma of  posterior fossa 
F. 9 m. Ependymoma of IVth ventricle F. 21 yr. Ependymoma of  posterior fossa M. 31 yr. Ependymoma of IVth ventricle M. 27 yr. Ependymoma of IVth ventricle with cranial and spinal meningeal seeding 
M. 17 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of third ventricle F. 49 yr. Spinal ependymoma M. 53 yr. Ependymoma of IVth ventricle M. 28 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of IVth ventricle, recurrence after 4 years
M. 31 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of pineal region M. 34 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of cerebral hemisphere M. 15 yr. Anaplastic ependymoma of cerebral hemisphere (another case) M. 49 yr. Recurrent ependymoma of  foramen of Luschka, with hyaline core rosettes containing elastic fibers 
F. 19 yr.  Cellular ependymoma  of posterior horn of lateral ventricle M. 4 yr.  Tanycytic ependymoma of third ventricle and foramina of Monro M. 6 yr. Right sided parieto-occipital tanycytic ependymoma F. 44 yr.  Tanycytic ependymoma of  lumbar spinal cord
F. 77 yr.  Clear cell ependymoma of cervical spinal cord
MYXOPAPILLARY  EPENDYMOMA...Neuropathology....
M. 14 a. Myxopapillary ependymoma F. 9 a. Myxopapillary ependymoma  F. 26 yr. Myxopapillary ependymoma  F. 1yr 3m. Extensive thoracic myxopapillary ependymoma
SUBEPENDYMOMA ...Neuropathology. EPENDYMOBLASTOMA Neuropathology.
M. 56 yr. Subependymoma of lateral ventricle. Text F. 49 yr. Subependymoma of lateral ventricle F. 2 yr 5 m. Frontal ependymoblastoma.  Text
CHOROID PLEXUS PAPILLOMA. ..Neuropathology.
For undergraduates: Neuropathology.
M. 11 yr. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle F. 9 m. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle. Twelve year follow up M. 30 d. Congenital choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle F. 32 yr. Choroid plexus papilloma of third ventricle
M. 26 yr. Calcified choroid plexus papilloma of fourth ventricle F. 36 yr. Choroid plexus papilloma of fourth ventricle.
Text on choroid plexus tumors
M. 52 yr. Choroid plexus papilloma of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle  (at foramen of Luschka) M.  6 m. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle
M. 10 m. Choroid plexus papilloma of lateral ventricle. Text
CHOROID PLEXUS CARCINOMA. ..Neuropathology.
For undergraduates: Neuropathology.
F. 1 yr 7 m. Choroid plexus carcinoma of lateral ventricle with  seeding through CSF pathways M. 3 months old. Choroid plexus carcinoma F. 10 yr.  Choroid plexus carcinoma
ASTROBLASTOMA ..Neuropathology CHORDOID GLIOMA OF THIRD VENTRICLE   Neuropathology
M. 43 yr.  Right  parietal astroblastoma.  Text F. 43 yr.  Chordoid glioma of third ventricle. Text
ANGIOCENTRIC  GLIOMA ...Neuropathology.
F. 6 yr 7 m.   Angiocentric glioma  in left superior frontal gyrus. Text
LHERMITTE-DUCLOS DISEASE (DYSPLASTIC GANGLIOCYTOMA  OF CEREBELLLUM) ...Neuropathology, image bank text
F. 32 yr.   Dysplastic gangliocytoma of  cerebellum  (Lhermitte-Duclos disease). MRI M. 22 yr.   Dysplastic gangliocytoma of  cerebellum  (Lhermitte-Duclos disease). MRI F. 45 yr.   Dysplastic gangliocytoma of  cerebellum  (Lhermitte-Duclos disease). MRI - two distinct lesions in right cerebellar hemisphere
GANGLIOCYTOMA...Neuropathology....
F. 20 yr. Gangliocytoma of cerebral gyrus with small ganglioglioma component F. 79 yr. Gangliocytoma of pituitary.  CT, MRI
GANGLIOGLIOMA...Neuropathology....
M. 17 yr. Mesial left temporal ganglioglioma  F. 15 yr.  Right temporal ganglioglioma F. 2 yr. 5 m.  Right frontal ganglioglioma F. 32 yr.  Right temporal ganglioglioma  associated with cortical dysplasia
M. 13 yr. Ganglioglioma of isthmus of right cingulate gyrus Same, recurring as glioblastoma multiforme after 5 years M. 21 yr. Desmoplastic ganglioglioma in an  adult, with calcospherites F. 29 yr. Classical ganglioglioma of left middle temporal gyrus 
F. 4 yr. Ganglioglioma  associated with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor  (DNT) F. 19 yr. Ganglioglioma of left inferior temporal gyrus   + cortical dysplasia F. 26 yr. Ganglioglioma of spinal cord M. 37 yr. Ganglioglioma of left frontal lobe
M. 23 yr. Ganglioglioma with  sarcomatous component,  CT Same, MRI F. 29 yr.  Solid-cystic right parietal ganglioglioma with  features of xanthoastrocytoma F. 32 yr. Solid-cystic ganglioglioma
with pilocytic glial component in cerebellum
M. 22 yr.  Ganglioglioma of cerebellum F. 52 yr.  Anaplastic parietal ganglioglioma M. 55 yr. Frontal ganglioglioma with pilocytic glial component F. 45 yr. Left parietal ganglioglioma
M. 12 yr. Small solid ganglioglioma of right insula F. 51 yr. Solid-cystic ganglioglioma of right temporal and occipital regions M. 25 yr.  Ganglioglioma exceptionally rich in eosinophilic granular bodies (EGBs) F. 64 yr.  Bifrontal desmoplastic ganglioglioma  above the corpus callosum with areas of central neurocytoma 
Case summary
M. 20 yr. Ganglioglioma of head of caudate nucleus Same,  hypoplasia of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres F. 8 yr.  Ganglioglioma 
with pilocytic astrocytoma component in spinal cord, MRI
M. 23 yr. Cystic ganglioglioma with minute solid component of pilocytic astrocytoma in cingulate gyrus. MRI
M. 2 yr. 4 m.  Anaplastic ganglioglioma of brain stem. MRI F. 1yr 1m. Anaplastic ganglioglioma  in III ventricle. Original biopsy and after 6-month chemotherapy
DESMOPLASTIC  INFANTILE  ASTROCYTOMA / GANGLIOGLIOMA 
(DIA / DIG)...Neuropathology....
M. 1 yr.  Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma Text M. 2 m. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma Texto F. 3 m. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma
.
CENTRAL NEUROCYTOMA.,,.Neuropathology.
M. 33 a. Central neurocytoma F. 26 a.  Central neurocytoma M. 45 a. Heavily calcified central neurocytoma F. 18 yr.  Central neurocytoma
M. 24 yr.  Atypical central neurocytoma M. 35 yr. Central neurocytoma. Text M. 26 yr.  Central neurocytoma F. 64 yr.  Central neurocytoma as component of a desmoplastic bifrontal
ganglioglioma above the corpus callosum
Case summary
F. 52 yr.  Central neurocytoma incarcerating the choroid plexus M. 15 yr.  Atypical central neurocytoma of third ventricle
DYSEMBRYOPLASTIC NEUROEPITHELIAL TUMOR (DNT)..Neuropathology....
M. 23 yr. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor   (DNT) in right temporal lobe. Text M. 19 yr. Left frontal DNT  M. 27 yr. Left temporal DNT F. 26 yr. Right temporal DNT
M. 14 yr. DNT in left inferior frontal gyrus. M. 52 yr. Right frontal and temporal mesial DNT M. 3 yr. DNT in left angular gyrus  F. 4 yr. Ganglioglioma  associated with DNT
M. 43 yr. DNT in left gyrus rectus F. 20 yr. DNT of right superior frontal gyrus.  Text M. 13 yr. DNT of left pre-central gyrus M. 24 yr. DNT of left cingulate gyrus at genu of corpus callosum
M. 9 yr. DNT of antero-medial right temporal lobe F. 8 yr.  DNT of basal gyri of left temporal lobe F. 7 yr.  DNT of left cuneus M. 29 yr. DNT of isthmus of right cingulate gyrus. 9-year followup
F. 30 yr. DNT of antero-medial left temporal lobe F. 32 yr.  DNT of right middle frontal gyrus F. 8 yr.  DNT of left middle and inferior temporal gyri M. 18 yr. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) of right inferior temporal / occipital gyri. CT, MRI
GLIONEURONAL TUMOR...Neuropathology....
F. 30 yr. Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands and focal transformation to glioblastoma multiforme
PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR  (PNET)...Neuropathology....
M. 21yr. Left temporal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)  M. 4 d.  Congenital PNET  of cerebral hemisphere with ependymal and neuroblastic differentiation.  F. 37 yr. Anaplastic PNET of left frontal lobe M. 29 yr. Left parietal PNET
F. 9 yr. Supratentorial (right fronto-temporal) PNET F. 43 yr.  Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).  Pre-operative CT Same, MRI 2½ months after first operation F. 36 yr.  Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of brainstem at IV ventricle floor
F. 2 yr.  2 m. Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and multilayered rosettes. CT, MRI F. 2 yr 9 m.  Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and multilayered rosettes.  Recurrence after 6 months.  MRI
MEDULLOBLASTOMA. ...Neuropathology....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
M. 21 yr. Desmoplastic medulloblastoma with spinal secondaries M. 35 yr. Medulloblastoma of vermis with spontaneous peritumoral hemorrhage. F. 32 yr. Large cell medulloblastoma with multiple foci in cerebellum and spinal cord  M. 13 yr. Recurrent medulloblastoma with supratentorial
ventricular extension
F. 24 yr.  Desmoplastic medulloblastoma
ATYPICAL  TERATOID/RHABDOID .TUMOR..Neuropathology.
M. 1 yr. 1 m. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of right cerebral hemisphere. CT, MRI, text
MENINGIOMAS  BY  TOPOGRAPHY ...Neuropathology....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
Meningiomas of cerebral convexity Of falx or parafalcine Of olfactory groove or roof of orbit Of sellar region
Of middle fossa Of sphenoid ridge Of optic nerve Of clivus
Of cerebellopontine angle Of tentorium /posterior fossa Intraventricular Of spinal canal
MORE MENINGIOMAS. ...Neuropathology....
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
M.  26 yr. Meningothelial  meningioma with rapid growth in young adult  F. 67 yr. Left intraventricular atypical meningioma  M.  74 yr. Right frontal meningothelial meningioma infiltrating brain M.  69 yr. Three-lobed fibroblastic meningioma (right frontoparietotemporal)
M.  44 yr. Left cerebellopontine angle meningioma insinuating into foramen magnum F. 70 yr. Left parietal meningioma infiltrating brain F. 62 yr. Meningioma of anterior spinal canal (T2-T3) F. 41 yr. Meningioma of olfactory groove
F. 50 yr. Right frontobasal meningioma (incidental finding) + aneurysm of right middle cerebral artery M.  60 yr. Chordoid meningioma of right  fronto-temporal region M.  64 yr. Lymphoplasmacyte-rich meningioma en plaque of orbital roof growing into basal cisterns. 10-year follow-up F. 73 yr. Secretory meningioma  of planum sphenoidale
F. 48 yr. Microcystic meningioma  of falx F. 52 yr. Atypical meningioma. 10-year follow-up  M.  36 yr. Meningioma originating in middle ear Same, intracranial extension after 4 years.
F.  36 yr. Secretory meningioma of sphenoid wing with hyperostosis. CT, MRI F. 13 yr. Clear cell meningioma of posterior fossa M.  51 yr. Lipidized meningioma (with adipose tissue metaplasia) of sphenoid wing F.  52 yr. Lipidized meningioma of petrous apex
F.  57 yr. Temporal lipidized meningioma F. 42 yr. Recurrent chordoid meningioma invading frontal sinus M. 49 yr.  Xanthomatous and  angiomatous meningioma of left parietal convexity F. 66 yr. Parafalcine meningioma with microcystic, xanthomatous, angiomatous and meningothelial  components
F. 29 yr.  Complex meningioma combining rhabdoid, papillary  and clear cell patterns F. 75 yr. 
Fibroblastic 
meningioma of left lateral ventricle
M. 70 yr.  Atypical meningioma with intra and extracranial growth replacing left side of frontal bone F. 63 yr. Giant meningioma of olfactory groove
F. 57 yr. Meningioma en plaque of middle fossa infiltrating cavernous sinus and middle ear M. 51 yr. Secretory meningioma  at cerebello-pontine angle masquerading as  schwannoma on MRI M. 43 yr. Giant bilateral
fronto-parietal 
meningioma  with hyperostosis and brain compression (MRI  Feb 2008)
Same, 4 years later. 
Tumor growth through bone gap and under scalp (MRI Oct 2011)
M. 69 yr. Frontal meningioma  producing  hyperostosis and bone destruction F. 68 yr.  Exophytic meningioma of lesser sphenoid wing with hyperostotic nodule at implantation F. 56 yr.  Psammomatous meningioma of olfactory groove F. 48 yr.  Chordoid meningioma of olfactory groove invading nasal cavity. CT
Same, MRI F. 44 yr. Intraspinal psammomatous meningioma F. 30 yr. Microcystic meningioma of greater sphenoid wing, causing hyperostosis M. 38 yr. Small temporal chordoid meningioma
F. 20 yr.   Anaplastic and clear cell  meningioma of posterior fossa with supratentorial extension. CT, MRI F. 55 yr. Fibroblastic S-100 positive meningiomas of posterior fossa raising schwannoma as differential diagnosis M. 74 yr. Fibroblastic S-100 positive meningioma of posterior fossa at internal auditory canal mimicking schwannoma
HEMANGIOPERICYTOMA ...Neuropathology.__Text
Solitary fibrous tumor  and hemangiopericytoma
Illustrated linked text
M. 33 yr. Hemangiopericytoma with falx attachment M. 30 yr. Hemangiopericytoma of tentorium cerebelli F. 67 yr. Hemangiopericytoma of sellar region mimicking pituitary adenoma
SOLITARY FIBROUS TUMOR OF THE  MENINGES.....Neuropathology.
Solitary fibrous tumor  and hemangiopericytoma
Illustrated linked text
F. 20 yr.  Solitary fibrous tumor of falx.    Text M. 50 yr.  Solitary fibrous tumor of meninges M. 73 yr.  Solitary fibrous tumor of meninges
F. 37 yr.  Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor developing multiple bone metastases 3 years after craniotomy Same, vertebral metastasis at T11 with cord compression 3 years later M. 55 yr.   Occipital epidural solitary fibrous tumor penetrating through bone. CT, MRI M. 52 yr.   Occipital / cervical intra- e extracranial solitary fibrous tumor. 10 year follow up and late metastases to thoracic vertebrae. CT, MRI - highlights. Exams in full
SCHWANNOMA ...Neuropathology....See also Neurofibromatosis type 2
For undergraduates: Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
F. 47 yr. Diminutive intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma F. 44 yr. Vestibular schwannoma F. 42 yr. Vestibular schwannoma F. 25 yr. Vestibular schwannoma
F. 44 yr. Vestibular schwannoma M. 44 yr. Vestibular schwannoma M. 37 yr. Solid-cystic vestibular schwannoma  M. 52 yr. Schwannoma of cauda equina
F. 27 yr. Schwannoma of cervical nerve root (right C4) M. 52 yr. Schwannoma of cervical nerve root (right C7) F. 49 yr. Giant schwannoma of sacral nerve root (right S1)  M. 30 yr. Schwannoma of cauda equina at conus medullaris
F. 27 yr. Recurrent vestibular schwannoma  compressing brain stem M. 27 yr. Schwannoma of trigeminal nerve root or of Gasserian ganglion M. 28 yr. Multiple schwannomas of cauda equina
NEUROFIBROMATOSIS  TYPE  1 (NF1)....Neuropathology....
M. 23 yr.   NF1.  Diffuse astrocytoma of cerebellum, sphenoid dysplasia, high signal intensity focus in globus pallidus M. 10 yr.   NF1.  Diffuse astrocytoma of optic pathways, gliomatosis of brain stem and cerebral hemispheres
F. 6 yr.   NF1.  Diffuse astrocytoma of optic pathways, gliomatosis of brain stem and centroencephalic structures, neurofibroma of scalp F. 9 yr.   NF1.  Pilocytic astrocytoma of optic nerve
F. 12 yr.   NF1.   Sphenoid dysplasia, neurofibromas of orbit and scalp, enlarged cisterna magna,  foci of abnormal signal intensity in cerebellar vermis and globus pallidus M. 14 yr.   NF1.   Multiple foci of abnormal signal intensity ('hamartomas') in brain.
F. 25 yr.   NF1.   Foci of abnormal signal intensity ('hamartomas') in brain.  M. 11 yr.   NF1.   Sphenoid dysplasia, neurofibroma of orbit, proptosis, bilateral foci of abnormal signal intensity in globus pallidus
M. 30 yr.   NF1.   Plexiform neurofibroma, sphenoid dysplasia, middle fossa arachnoid cyst,  craniofacial deformity F. 24 yr.   NF1.   Plexiform neurofibroma of face and scalp, sphenoid dysplasia,  middle fossa  arachnoid cyst,  craniofacial deformity, proptosis and buphthalmos. 
M. 13 yr.   NF1.   Plexiform neurofibroma of scalp and ear,  posterior  fossa arachnoid cyst M. 17 yr.   NF1.   Plexiform neurofibroma of nuchal region with malignant transformation (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, MPNST). 
M. 56 yr.   NF1.   Multiple tumors of spinal nerve roots F. 11 yr.   NF1.   Multiple tumors of spinal roots and nerves extending widely into paravertebral muscles
M. 66 yr.   NF1.   Lateral meningoceles of thoracic and sacral regions, marked kyphoscoliosis, cutaneous neurofibromas.
NEUROFIBROMATOSIS  TYPE  2 (NF2)
M. 11 yr.   NF2.  Bilateral vestibular schwannomas, ependymoma of medulla and cervical cord, meningiomas of foramen of Luschka and lateral ventricle.  M. 25 yr.   NF2.   Bilateral vestibular schwannomas, ependymoma of cervical cord, cavernous sinus meningioma (arrow), optic nerve sheath tumor (also meningioma?)
F. 51 yr.   NF2.  Multiple meningiomas (meningiomatosis), left vestibular schwannoma , ependymoma of spinobulbar transition.
Illustrated linked texts (in Portuguese): schwannomas, neurofibromas,
NF1, NF2.
M. 42 yr.   NF2.   Left vestibular schwannoma, meningioma of petrous apex and sphenoid, tentorial meningioma surrounding straight sinus
M. 25 yr.   Neurofibromatosis type 2. Ependymomas in medulla and lumbar spinal cord; bilateral vestibular and right oculomotor schwannomas; meningioma of optic nerve sheath, others. CT, MRI
GANGLIONEUROBLASTOMA...Neuropathology.
F. 20 yr. Epidural thoracic ganglioneuroblastoma. Text.
NEUROBLASTOMA...Neuropathology.
M. 40 yr. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) F. 28 yr.  Neuroblastoma of olfactory nerve (esthesioneuroblastoma) M. 36 yr.  Esthesioneuroblastoma with frontal lobe extension M. 46 yr. 
Esthesioneuroblastoma causing frontal lobe hemorrhage
M. 11 m.  Retroperitonial neuroblastoma  metastatic to skull
NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA ...Neuropathology.
M. 52 yr.  Sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma
HEMANGIOBLASTOMA...Neuropathology....
F. 55 yr. Hemangioblastoma of cervical cord with hydrosyringomyelia F. 50 yr. Hemangioblastoma of spinobulbar transition M. 42 yr.  Cerebellar hemangioblastoma F. 23 yr. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma
F. 50 yr.  Left hemispheric solid cerebellar hemangioblastoma M. 39 yr.  Midline solid-cystic cerebellar hemangioblastoma  M. 39 yr. Hemangioblastoma of cervical  cord M. 52 yr.  Hemangioblastoma of medulla oblongata
LYMPHOMA...Neuropathology....
M. 65 yr. Lymphoma of basal ganglia F. 32 yr. Lymphoma of cerebral hemisphere F. 62 yr. Primary B-cell  non-Hodgkin lymphoma of occipital bone. Text F. 19 yr. Recurrent Hodgkin's lymphoma in thoracic vertebrae and soft tissues, causing root compression.
F. 56 yr. B-cell lymphoma of cerebellum and pituitary M. 24 yr.  Systemic T/NK cell lymphoma masquerading as multiple sclerosis 
Case summary
F. 27 yr. Diffusely infiltrating, non contrast enhancing B-cell lymphoma F. 60 yr. Primary dural lymphoma with extracranial extension. 12-year follow-up
F. 56 yr. Marginal zone non Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma of skull base at left cavernous sinus F. 42 yr. Centroencephalic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  Text F. 52 yr.  B cell lymphoma of dura mater, occipital bone and soft tissues
MULTIPLE  MYELOMA / PLASMACYTOMA...Neuropathology....
M. 59 yr. Multiple myeloma of spine F. 45 yr.  Plasmacytoma of skull base M. 61 yr. Skull base plasmacytoma (occipital and temporal bones)
HISTIOCYTOSES. ..Neuropathology....
F. 50 yr. Non Langerhans histiocytosis  of skull base and sellar region. Early lesions CT, MRI Same, follow up MRI after 4 months M. 34 yr. Non Langerhans histiocytosis  of meninges and brain. Early lesions, MRI Same, follow up MRI after 6 months
F. 3 yr. Langerhans histiocytosis (eosinophil granuloma) of skull and sternum M. 63 yr. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of orbit M. 6 yr.  Langerhans cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X or eosinophil granuloma) of skull (occipital bone) F. 2yr 9m. Langerhans cell histiocytosis  in vertebral body of C7
METASTASES....Neuropathology....For undergraduates:   Neuropathology. Neuroimaging
M. 25 yr.  Metastatic  neuroendocrine carcinoma M. 45 yr.  Pontine metastasis of renal carcinoma  F. 52 yr.  Metastatic breast carcinoma in posterior fossa mimicking meningioma F. 51 yr.  Left frontal metastatic  melanoma
F. 48 yr.  Right temporal metastatic colon carcinoma F. 64 yr.  Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in spine and thoracic wall M. 57 yr. Cerebellar metastasis of neuroendocrine carcinoma F. 75 yr.  Occipital metastasis of follicular carcinoma of thyroid. 4-year history
M. 11 m.  Retroperitonial neuroblastoma  metastatic  to skull M. 60 yr.  Widespread cerebral metastases of lung adenocarcinoma F. 15 yr. Three metastases of choriocarcinoma (primary in hydatiform mole) M. 22 yr.  Two metastases of choriocarcinoma (primary in mediastinum)
F. 68 yr. Skull metastasis of follicular adenocarcinoma of thyroid M. 59 yr. Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in cerebral hemisphere F. 75 yr. Metastatic adenocarcinoma in sphenoid wing mimicking meningioma on MRI M. 60 yr. Metastatic melanoma in genu of corpus callosum mimicking butterfly glioma 
F. 54 yr. Metastatic  melanoma in head of caudate nucleus, with peritumoral and intraventricular hemorrhage F. 22 yr.  Cerebral metastases of choriocarcinoma 6 years after molar pregnancy. CT, MRI  M. 20 yr.  Brain and lung metastases of testicular choriocarcinoma.  CT, MRI Same, contralateral brain metastases after one year. MRI
CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA...Neuropathology....For undergraduates:   Endocrine Pathology
M. 19 yr. Calcified craniopharyngioma in plain skull radiographs M. 13 yr. Peripherally calcified craniopharyngioma  causing enlargement of sella M. 3 yr. Craniopharyngioma: large, solid-cystic, partly calcified tumor  F. 15 yr. Craniopharyngioma: tumor growth over one year
F. 8 yr. Craniopharyngioma: five-year follow-up M. 12 yr. Craniopharyngioma: 12-year follow-up M. 8 yr. Bilobed craniopharyngioma involving the optic chiasm F. 7 yr. Solid-cystic craniopharyngioma 
M. 19 yr. Craniopharyngioma: complete ressection  M. 39 yr. Papillary craniopharyngioma M. 59 yr. Papillary craniopharyngioma: frontal lobe extension  M. 35 yr. Intrasellar craniopharyngioma 
F. 31 yr. Papillary craniopharyngioma M. 44 yr. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma  extending into third ventricle M. 54 yr.   Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma.  Large cyst filling prepontine cistern and  third ventricle M. 44 yr. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma extending into frontal lobes 
M. 31 yr.  Presumed craniopharyngioma with fluid level (specimen contained only pilocytic gliosis, but no tumor) M. 28 yr. Papillary craniopharyngioma
EPIDERMOID / DERMOID CYSTS ...Neuropathology....
F. 56 yr. Epidermoid cyst of  posterior fossa  F. 47 yr. Epidermoid cyst of  right choroid fissure M. 33 yr.  Epidermoid cyst of right choroid fissure and arachnoid cyst of posterior fossa. Text M. 25 yr. 
Dermoid cyst (mature cystic teratoma) of sellar region. Spread of lipid droplets through subarachnoid space and lateral ventricle. Text
M. 64 yr. Dermoid cyst  (mature teratoma) in cerebellar vermis and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst F. 1 yr. 6 m.  Intraspinal dermoid cyst M. 18 yr.  Dermoid cyst of posterior fossa insinuating into foramen magnum and compressing medulla. CT, MRI
M. 5 yr. Teratoma  (dermoid cyst) of pineal - CT Same, MRI M. 13 yr. Teratoma of pineal. Free lipid droplets in lateral ventricles
PITUITARY ADENOMAS. ..Neuropathology...For undergraduates:   Endocrine Pathology
F. 43 yr. Microadenoma (prolactinoma) F. 28 yr. Microadenoma (prolactinoma) F. 31 yr. Microadenoma (prolactinoma) M. 44 yr. Macroadenoma
F. 15 yr. Macroadenoma (prolactinoma) M. 37 yr. Partly cystic macroadenoma  F. 73 yr. Cystic macroadenoma showing sedimentation level F. 17 yr. Cystic macroadenoma: two-year follow-up
M. 33 yr. Macroadenoma - regression in response to clinical treatment F. 37 yr. GH-secreting macroadenoma causing acromegaly M. 41 yr. Pituitary oncocytoma (null cell adenoma, oncocytic variant) M. 49 yr. Giant invasive pituitary adenoma infiltrating skull base and nasopharynx 
F. 44 yr.  Ectopic invasive pituitary adenoma centered in sphenoid sinus, spilling into left nasal cavity. Normal sella turcica. Text M. 44 yr. Oncocytoma (null cell adenoma) of  pituitary F. 67 yr.   Invasive pituitary adenoma with extensive skull base infiltration. CT, MRI M. 46 yr. Eosinophil pituitary adenoma causing acromegaly.  Negative IH for HGH in spite of increased serum levels. CT, MRI
PITUITARY CARCINOMA    .... Neuropathology.
F. 37 yr.   Pituitary carcinoma  with pulmonary metastases. 6-year follow up.  CT, MRI, highlights Same,  exams in full. Text
GRANULAR CELL TUMOR OF NEUROHYPOPHYSIS ...Neuropathology.
M. 36 yr.  Granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis. Text M. 56 yr.  Granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis at III ventricle floor
TUMORS  OF  THE  PINEAL REGION
GERMINAL  TUMORS ...Neuropathology.   Texts (1) (2)
M. 19 yr. Germinoma of pineal  M. 29 yr.  Germinoma of pineal M. 21 yr.  Germinoma of pineal M. 19 yr.  Germinoma of pineal
M. 9 yr.  Germinoma of pineal M. 28 yr. Germinoma of pineal F. 12 yr.  Germinoma of  hypothalamic region M. 21 yr. Germinoma of  hypothalamic region infiltrating dorsum sellae, cavernous sinuses and compressing optic chiasm 
M. 9 yr. Germinoma of pineal. Seeding of cranial subarachnoid space and lumbar nerve roots. Two-year follow-up.  F. 16 yr. Germinoma of  hypothalamic region disseminating to IV ventricle M. 14 yr. Germinoma of hypothalamic region and III ventricle M. 8 mth. Congenital cerebral teratoma. 6 month follow up with CT, MRI
M. 5 yr. Teratoma  (dermoid cyst) of pineal - CT Same, MRI M. 13 yr. Teratoma of pineal. Free lipid droplets in lateral ventricles
PINEAL PARENCHYMAL TUMORS, OTHERS...Neuropathology. .Text
F. 24 yr. Pineocytoma. Text F. 56 yr. Pineocytoma M. 52 yr. Pineocytoma
F. 20 yr. Pineoblastoma. Text M. 15 yr. Pineoblastoma F. 14 yr.  Pineoblastoma
F. 64 yr.  Glioblastoma multiforme of pineal. Text M.  9 yr. Pineal cyst. Text F. 58 yr. Three-lobed cyst of pineal
CHORDOMA ...Neuropathology....Text
F. 54 yr. Chordoma of clivus M. 33 yr.  Chordoma of clivus M. 41 yr.  Chordoma of clivus M. 72 yr.  Chordoma of 5th lumbar vertebra extending into spinal canal 
M. 53 yr. Sacrococcygeal chordoma M. 67 yr. Sacrococcygeal chordoma F. 68 yr. Sacral chordoma with massive recurrence after 6 years F. 32 yr.  Chordoma of clivus
PARAGANGLIOMAS ...Neuropathology....Text
F. 59 yr. Carotid body paraganglioma F. 52 yr. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of cauda equina F. 54 yr. Paraganglioma of cauda equina  
BONE TUMORS. ..Neuropathology....For undergraduates...
M. 23 yr. Giant cell tumor of sacrum and lumbar vertebrae. Text F. 16 yr. Aneurysmal bone cyst of sacrum.  Text M. 27 yr.  Occipital aneurysmal bone cyst. Text F. 16 yr.  Aneurysmal bone cyst of thoracic spine
M. 20 yr.  Aneurysmal bone cyst of skull and spontaneous (non traumatic) epidural hematoma F. 31 yr. Osteosarcoma of clivus secondary to irradiation for craniopharyngioma M. 42 yr.  Chondroma of skull base at petrous apex / cavernous sinus. Text M. 16 yr.  Cystic, partially ossified chondroma of brain convexity with dural attachment. Text
F. 31 yr. Chondroma of skull base F. 17 yr.  Skull base chondroblastoma (temporal bone). Text M. 19 yr.  Chondromyxoid fibroma  of occipital bone; intra-  and extracranial extension F. 21 yr.  Fibrous dysplasia of skull
LEIOMYOMA...Neuropathology. LIPOMA...Neuropathology.
F. 71 yr. Extradural spinal leiomyoma M. 11 yr. 6 m. Intradural cervical and lumbar lipomas. MRI
MELANOCYTOMA...Neuropathology.
F. 39 yr. Melanocytoma of sellar region. Six-year follow-up
PERIPHERAL PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR  (pPNET)
......Neuropathology.
F. 21 yr. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of cervical nerve root. Text F. 37 yr. Ewing's sarcoma / peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of lumbar nerve roots invading vertebrae M. 21 yr. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of lumbar nerve roots with paravertebral soft tissue extension M. 26 yr. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of cauda equina
F. 15 yr. pPNET (peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor) / Ewing's sarcoma of spinal epidural space (T11-T12) compressing cord and nerve root . F. 38 yr.  Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) of sacral plexus and sciatic nerve
SARCOMA.....Neuropathology.
M. 17 yr. Primary myxoid sarcoma of brain. Early lesion in left parietal lobe Same, rapid tumor growth in 2½ months Same, first recurrence at left temporal lobe after 6 months  Same, second recurrence after 3 years, elsewhere in left parietal lobe
Case  summary
Same, third recurrence after 4 years at left frontal lobe M. 21 yr.  Primary meningeal sarcoma with polyphenotypic antigen expression M. 19 yr.  Primary sarcoma of cerebral cortex



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MALFORMATIONS, MIGRATION DEFECTS ...Neuropathology.
F. 1 yr. 5 m.   Hemimegalencephaly, agyria, pachygyria. M. 3yr.  Pachygyria F. 21 yr. Double cortex  F. 24 yr. Double cortex 
Textos. Agiria, paquigiria, hemimegalencefalia, heterotopias gliais meníngeas
F. 1 yr. 2 m. Heterotopias F. 24 yr. Heterotopias F. 19 yr. Heterotopias M. 7 yr. Schizencephaly, polymicrogyria, agenesis of septum pellucidum
F. 9 yr.  Schizencephaly, polymicrogyria, agenesis of septum pellucidum M. 15 yr. Cortical dysplasia,  Taylor type F. 33 yr. Cortical dysplasia,  Taylor type M. 2 yr. 11 m. Cortical dysplasia,  Taylor type
F. 15 yr. Cortical dysplasia,  non-Taylor type (normal MRI) M. 15 yr. M. 15 yr. Non-Taylor cortical dysplasia + incidental pleomorphic
xanthoastrocytoma
M. 16 yr. Polymicrogyria and cystic leukomalacia F. 40 yr. Frontoethmoidal (frontonasal) encephalocele
F. 5 yr. Frontoethmoidal (fronto-orbital) encephalocele M. 4 m.  Occipital encephalocele M. 4 yr. 4 m.  Tuberous sclerosis. Multiple tubers in cerebral hemispheres (+ subependymal giant cell astrocytoma) M. 1 yr. 9m. Tuberous sclerosis. Giant partly calcified fronto-parietal tuber
M. 20 yr. Hypoplasia of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres (+ganglioglioma of head of caudate nucleus)
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CYSTS, HAMARTOMAS, OTHERS...Neuropathology
F. 28 yr. Congenital arachnoid cyst  M. 33 yr. Arachnoid cyst of posterior fossa (+ epidermoid cyst of choroidal fissure) F. 27 yr. Intradiploic arachnoid cyst. Text M. 64 yr. Dermoid cyst  (mature teratoma) in cerebellar vermis and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst 
M. 2 yr. 4 m.   Arachnoid cyst (incidental finding) in patient with anaplastic ganglioglioma of brain stem. 
M. 45 yr. Cervical epidural meningeal cyst. Text F. 15 yr. Multiple epidural meningeal cysts F. 62 yr. Thoracic epidural meningeal cyst. MRI
F. 45 yr. Spinal enterogenous cyst M. 24 yr. Spinal enterogenous cyst M. 5 mths.  Choroid plexus cyst of left lateral ventricle
M. 43 yr. Colloid cyst of third ventricle. CT.
Image bank
F. 62 yr. Colloid cyst of third ventricle. CT M. 14 yr. Colloid cyst of third ventricle. CT, MRI M. 36 yr. Colloid cyst of third ventricle causing  unilateral hydrocephalus. CT, MRI
M. 40 yr. Colloid cyst of third ventricle. CT, MRI M. 61 yr. Colloid cyst of third ventricle causing  bilateral hydrocephalus. CT, MRI F. 14 yr.  Colloid cyst of III ventricle F. 22 yr.  Colloid cyst of III ventricle
M. 55 yr.  Colloid cyst of III ventricle
F. 37 yr.  Rathke's cleft cyst. CT, MRI
Image bank
F. 46 yr. Rathke's cleft cyst. MRI F. 42 yr. Rathke's cleft cyst. MRI F. 70 yr. Rathke's cleft cyst.  MRI
M. 25 yr.  Hypothalamic hamartoma. Text F. 3 yr.  Hypothalamic hamartoma F. 3 yr.  Hypothalamic hamartoma F. 1 yr. 7m.  Hypothalamic hamartoma
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OTHER  DISEASES...Neuropathology....
F. 59 yr. Late pseudotumoral necrosis after gamma knife irradiation for cavernoma M. 41 yr. Radiation induced demyelinating white matter lesions 4 years after oligoastrocytoma Same case, late pseudotumoral brain necrosis after 5 years
Case summary
F. 59 yr. Pseudotumoral brain necrosis 9 months after radiation therapy for glioblastoma multiforme
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